09 ± 3 07 × 107 12 62 ± 3 5A

09 ± 3.07 × 107 12.62 ± 3.5A Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor 2.65 ± 1.79 × 107 16.2 ± 9.7A MyOne-3F8 2.26 ± 1.18 × 106 2.63 ± 1.4B 6.45 ± 7.44 × 106 3.8 ± 4.3B Dynabead anti-Listeria 2.76 ± 3.11 × 106 6.12 ± 0.5B 7.65 ± 8.26 × 106 4.4 ± 4.8B aqPCR analysis is based on hlyA. Primers to 16S gene sequences were used as internal control. bData are average of 3 experiments run in triplicate. Values labeled with letters (A, B) in a column are significantly different at P < 0.05. Discussion The recovery of low numbers of target pathogens from complex food matrices is a challenge for sensitive detection methods [31, 32]. IMS using

PMBs is used to separate and concentrate target pathogens from food samples before detection by plating, immunoassay, PCR, or biosensor methods [31, 37, 39, 42, 45, 51]. Antibodies [14] or alternative molecules [19, 51, 52] are used as capture molecules for IMS, and improvements in reagents MLN4924 mw and assay platform development are essential to enhance assay performance.

The specific detection of whole cells of L. monocytogenes using immunological methods relies on highly specific antibodies with a strong affinity for bacterial surface antigens [31]. The antigen target should be uniformly distributed on the target organism, covalently anchored to the cell wall, and accessible to the antibody [53]. InlA is a well-characterized protein that is highly specific to L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, and it has all the desirable properties of an antigen [15]. Thus, we produced MAbs against InlA (pathogenic Listeria) and p30 (all Listeria spp.). The resulting MAbs were employed in IMS to capture Fenbendazole and concentrate bacteria from food followed by fiber-optic sensor-based detection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the combined use of these two approaches. InlA-specific antibody production

was facilitated by the use of whole cells of L. monocytogenes and purified rInlA as immunogens. Hybrid B-lymphocyte clones secreted antibodies with a strong reaction towards live whole cells, but a weaker reaction was observed with heat-killed cells (data not shown). Since rInlA was soluble, denaturing agents were not required before immunization. Thus, the native structure of InlA during the immune response was preserved, and the resulting antibody recognized the native protein on the surface of bacteria. The InlA-specific MAb-2D12 reacted with all known L. monocytogenes serotypes, whereas previously reported MAbs failed to recognize all 13 serotypes [23, 26, 27]. Only serotype 1/2c showed a weak reaction with MAb-2D12. However, this strain has been involved in a few GS-1101 order sporadic cases of listeriosis [54, 55] and is rarely found. Moreover, none of the 25 strains of serotype 1/2c expressed a functional, full-length InlA [55], which may explain why MAb-2D12 displayed a reduced reaction to 1/2c. When tested with serotype 3c, MAb-2D12 reacted strongly with a ~66 kDa band instead of the normal 80-kDa InlA band.

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