, 2013) Milbrink & Timm (2001) thought that some species from th

, 2013). Milbrink & Timm (2001) thought that some species from these genera (Potamothrix hammoniensis, Psammoryctides barbatus) started to expand their range in early postglacial times, whereas the others did so in recent centuries as a result of human activities ( Leppäkoski, 2005 and Dziubińska, 2011). In favourable conditions the density of the various species in this group can reach

a few thousand individuals per square metre. Up to now, in Europe Nearctic Limnodrilus species have usually been found in a small number of locations, and numbers of mature specimens have been very low. Examples include L. maumeensis (see van Haaren 2002) and L. tortilipenis (see Soes and van Haaren, 2007 and Munts Selleckchem Regorafenib and Soes, 2012) in the Netherlands. Recently, the latter species was also found in Belgium ( van Haaren & Soors 2013). L. cervix is more widely distributed

in Europe. It has been found in Great Britain ( Kennedy 1965), Sweden ( Milbrink 1980), the Netherlands and Romania ( van Haaren 2002) and Belgium selleck chemicals llc (Soors at al. 2013). Moreover, according to http://www.faunaeur.org it is known from Belarus, probably from the River Pripyat (Timm pers. comm.), but this information was not contained in a paper dealing with the distribution of aquatic alien species in that country ( Semenchenko et al. 2009). In North America Kathman & Brinkhurst (1998) reported L. cervix as being common and widespread. It lives mainly in organically polluted waters, but these authors presume that it is less resistant to serious contamination than L. hoffmeisteri. Rakocinski et al. (2000) considered that Unoprostone this opportunistic species prefers waters of low salinity, but its presence in the Schelde estuary, at the point where the river becomes non-tidal ( Soors et al. 2013), and in canals near Liverpool, U.K. ( Kennedy 1965) suggest that it could survive in brackish waters.

To date, North American oligochaeteous clitellates have not been found in the Baltic Sea, although they have been reported from brackish waters in the Netherlands (van Haaren & Soors 2013). Usually it is single specimens of Nearctic Limnodrilus spp. that have been found in rivers and canals situated near the seashore, especially close to large ports, which allows one to conjecture that they reached European water bodies in the ballast waters of transoceanic ships ( Jażdżewski et al., 2002 and Dobrzycka-Krahel et al., 2012). Only Kennedy (1965) found abundant specimens of L. cervix in a number of canals in England and Wales; this gave rise to the interpretation that this species could become invasive. To VL L. cervix could have been transported along the European sea shore in small ships from the Netherlands or Belgium, which was the case with the North American species Rangia cuneata ( Rudinskaya & Gusev 2012), found earlier in these countries.

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