Based on these various conceptions, for the purposes of our study

Based on these various conceptions, for the purposes of our study, we consider work functioning as a comprehensive concept, encompassing a wide range of aspects measurable by self-reports. We include aspects of the work process and work outcome (Sonnentag and Frese 2002), as well as aspects of task execution and of organizational functioning, such as behavior within the team and toward the environment of the work organization (Motowidlo and Van Scotter 1994; Viswevaran and Ones 2000). SRT1720 in vivo Additionally, the extra effort to complete

work tasks is included where appropriate (Dewa and Lin 2000). Furthermore, in the present study, rather than expressing impairments of work functioning solely in terms of quantity, qualitative aspects of work functioning will be addressed Ion Channel Ligand Library chemical structure as well (Haslam et al. 2005; find more Suzuki et al. 2004; Yassi and Hancock 2005). Following this description, we assume work functioning to be a multidimensional construct; therefore, no prior limit was set on the number of subscales and items the instrument should contain. Yet, we strive to develop a self-report

questionnaire based on the classical test theory assumptions. In the following, the methods and results of the two research questions will be described separately as part 1 and part 2. Methods Methods part 1: development of the item pool Design In order to develop a sound questionnaire with high content validity, a protocol based on recommendations

by Haynes (Haynes et al. 1995) and by Terwee (Terwee et al. 2007) was followed. The development of the item pool comprised C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) of three phases: the preparation phase, the item generation phase and the revision phase, is described in detail below. Figure 1 presents an overview of the study design with the methods and results for each step. Fig. 1 Overview of the study design and the results of each step Preparation phase Procedure of the preparation phase: In the first phase, we conducted two systematic literature searches in four databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and Cinahl. We aimed to inventory all literature about effects of CMDs on work functioning in general (first search) and nurses and allied health professionals in particular (second search) (Gartner et al. 2010). Subsequently, five focus group interviews were held. Following a multiple category design (Krueger and Casey 2000), three focus groups were held with nurses and allied health professional and two with experts on work functioning in the health sector. The focus group interviews with a duration of 2 hours were conducted by two researchers (FG & KN) who alternately moderated or observed. The group interviews were structured by three cases, which were presented to the participants. The cases, written in the second person, described, respectively, an employee with fatigue and stress, depression and anxiety, and alcohol abuse.

Melanospheres were highly tumorigenic when injected subcutaneousl

Melanospheres were highly tumorigenic when injected subcutaneously in NOD Scid or Nude mice and all samples displayed tumor take of 100% down to 25000 cells. For one sample we performed a limiting dilution experiment and even as low as 5 cells Pevonedistat purchase readily generated this website a tumor within 8 weeks (Figure 1B and C). In contrast, melanosphere-derived differentiated cells displayed

a decreased and delayed tumor growth in vivo, and as many as 5×104 differentiated cells generated a slowly growing tumor with a 10-week delay post-injection (Figure 1B). Immunohistochemical analysis of melanosphere-derived xenografts, performed for all samples, revealed a high similarity between the xenograft and the original patient tumor in terms of morphology and expression of the melanoma-associated diagnostic antigens MART1 and S100 (Figure 1D is a representative find more image). Following xenograft dissociation and re-injection we easily obtained secondary and tertiary tumors, suggesting that tumorigenic potential was not lost with passages in mice, in fact these results proved the ability of tumorigenic cells to self-renew in vivo (results not shown). Based on these in vitro and in vivo results, we considered melanospheres as surrogate of melanoma-initiating cells (MIC) exploitable for pre-clinical experimentation.

Melanospheres are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs and to most pathway inhibitors We investigated the response of melaospheres to chemotherapeutic agents currently used in the treatment of melanoma patients. Melanospheres were exposed to cisplatin, temozolomide, dacarbazine and paclitaxel for 48 hours and cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Overall a weak cytotoxic effect (<40% in all samples and with all drugs) was observed with Sodium butyrate no therapeutic window as compared to normal melanocytes (Figure 2A). Conversely, differentiated cells were extremely sensitive to cisplatin, in 3 out of 3 samples assessed (Figure 2B is a representative sample). Figure 2 Drug resistance of melanosphere and pathway

activation. A) Cell viability of undifferentiated melanospheres of the indicated samples and melanocytes treated with the indicated drugs. Mean ± SD of 3 independent experiments is shown. ** p < 0,01. B) Cell viability of melanospheres (undifferentiated) and their progeny (differentiated) exposed to the indicated chemotherapeutic agents. A representative sample is shown. Mean ± SD of 3 independent experiments is shown. *** p < 0,001. C) Cell viability of melanospheres exposed to the indicated kinase inhibitors. Mean ± SD of 3 independent experiments is shown. ** p < 0,01; * p < 0,05 D) Immunoblot analysis of the indicated proteins or phosphoproteins in melanospheres. U251 and T98G glioblastoma cell lines were used as p-ERK positive and negative control, respectively.

Biol Conserv 148:180–190 doi:10 ​1016/​j ​biocon ​2012 ​01 ​014

Biol Conserv 148:180–190. doi:10.​1016/​j.​biocon.​2012.​01.​014 CrossRef Lewin I (2006) The gastropod communities in the lowland rivers of agricultural areas—their biodiversity and bioindicative value in the Ciechanowska Upland, Central Poland. Malacologia 49:7–23CrossRef Lewin I, Smoliński A (2006) Rare, threatened and alien species

in the gastropod communities in the clay pit ponds in relation to the environmental factors (The Ciechanowska Upland, Central Poland). Biodivers Conserv 15:3617–3635. doi:10.​1007/​s10531-005-8347-4 CrossRef Lipsey L, Malcolm S (1981) Summer zooplankton communities of selected borrow-pit ponds in Northern Illinois. Hydrobiologia 77:81–85CrossRef Majewski T (1998) New and rare Hydraenidae i Hydrochidae (Coleoptera) w Polsce. Acta

entomol silesiana 5–6:21–23 Menetrey N, Sager L, Oertli B, Lachavanne JB (2005) Looking for metrics to assess the trophic state of ponds. Macroinvertebrates and amphibians. Aquat Conserv GW3965 supplier Mar Freshw Ecosyst 15:653–664CrossRef Ohnesorge D (1988) Die Libellenfauna (Odonata) der Kiesgrube Barkholz (Kreis Stormarn, Schleswig—Holstein). Seevögel 9:17–25 Ott J (1995) Die Beeinträchtigung von Sand- und Kiesgruben durch intensive Angelnutzung—Auswirkungen auf die Libellenfauna und planerische Lösungsansätze. Limnol aktuell 7:155–170 Pakulnicka J (2004) The aquatic beetles in post-exploitation water bodies in Poland. Latissimus 18:22–26 Pakulnicka J (2008) The formation of water beetle fauna in anthropogenic water bodies. Oceanol Hydrobiol Stud 37:31–42. doi:10.​2478/​v10009-007-0037-y CrossRef Pakulnicka J, Biesiadka E (2011) mafosfamide Water beetles fauna of Olsztyn (Poland). In: Indykiewicz P et al. (eds) Urban fauna. Studies of animal biology, ecology and conservation in the European Cites. Ro 61-8048 molecular weight University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz, pp 305–317 Pakulnicka J, Nowakowski JJ (2012) The

effect of hydrological connectivity on water beetles fauna in water bodies within the floodplain of a lowland river (Neman river, Belarus). Oceanol Hydrobiol Stud 41:7–17. doi:10.​2478/​s13545-012-0012-4 CrossRef Pakulnicka J, Zawal A (2007) Chrząszcze wodne (Coleoptera) rezerwatu jezioro Szare i jego otuliny. Parki nar Rez Przyr 26:121–133 Pakulnicka J, Eyre M, Czachorowski S (1998) Materials to the knowledge of water and semiaquatic beetles (Coleoptera) if the vicinity of Olsztyn. Wiad Entomol 17:69–74 Pawłowski J, Kubisz D, Mazur M (2002) Coleoptera Chrząszcze. In: Głowaciński Z (ed) Red list of threatened animals in Poland. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nature Conservation, Cracow, pp 88–110 Przewoźny M (2004) New records of the Hydrophiloidea (Coleoptera: hydrophiloidea) w Polsce.

Finally the E/E’ index was determined Echocardiographic analysis

Finally the E/E’ index was determined. Echocardiographic analysis was performed by two independent reviewers, blinded to the clinical data, using dedicated computer software (EchoPAC, version 110.0.0, GE Medical, Milwaukee,

WI, USA). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging All patients underwent a CMR study at baseline and at 12 months following initiation of NHD. All CMR studies were performed using a 1.5-T Siemens Scanner (Magnetom Sonata, Siemens Medical Systems, Erlangen, Germany). Cardiac parameters of interest included chamber dimensions, volumes, and systolic function which were analyzed in accordance with guidelines of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance [17]. PARP inhibitor End-systolic and end-diastolic volumes of the left and right ventricle were obtained using manual tracing of ventricular walls in multiple short axis slices. End diastole was defined as the slice in which the ventricle was at its largest volume, while end systole was defined as the slice with the smallest volume. Stroke volume (SV) was calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic

volume (ESV). Left and right ventricular mass were determined using the find more summation of slices method [18]. Endocardial and epicardial borders of the left and right ventricle, excluding papillary muscles, were manually traced in each image slice used to calculate EDV and ESV. Myocardial volume isometheptene was calculated by multiplying these values by slice thickness. Myocardial mass was then determined by multiplying each volume by 1.05 g/cm3. Analysis of CMRs was conducted by two independent reviewers, blinded to the clinical data, using dedicated computer software (CMR42, version 1.0.0, Circle

Cardiovascular Imaging, Calgary, AB, Canada). Statistical analysis All parametric data were reported as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Categorical data were reported as “n” (percentage). The Mann–Whitney U test was used to measure the intra- and inter-observer variability for LV end-diastolic volume and LV mass for both imaging modalities. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. SAS version 8.01 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina) was used to perform the analysis. Results Study population A total of 11 patients (mean age 48 ± 16 years) were enrolled in the study, of which 6 were male (Table 1). Ten patients underwent conventional, thrice-weekly facility-based hemodialysis at baseline (prior to enrollment), while one patient performed home peritoneal dialysis. The most frequent etiology of kidney failure was glomerulonephritis (55 %), followed by diabetic nephropathy (18 %) and polycystic kidney disease (18 %). Cardiac comorbidities included hypertension (63 %), ischemic heart disease (27 %), diabetes mellitus (36 %), and valvular heart disease (9 %).

2) The posterior suture line is typically completed first, follo

2). The posterior suture line is typically completed first, followed by the anterior side (Fig. 2). Prior to completing the last few bites of the anterior row, the vessel is flushed of debris and air using sequential distal and proximal clamp releases in the standard fashion. After reapplication of the vascular clamps, the visible lumen is flushed with heparinized saline, and the last few bites of the JQEZ5 clinical trial anterior row are completed (Figs. 3 &4). To eliminate air from

the system, the distal vascular clamp is removed before the final knot is tied at the 3 or 9 o’clock position. Restoration of pulses at the wrist after end-to-end anastomosis of the subclavian, axillary, or brachial artery is considered excellent evidence of a satisfactory repair in the upper extremity. With end-to-end anastomosis of the iliac, popliteal, or tibioperoneal artery after trauma, completion arteriography is preferred to differentiate the presence of vascular spasm from distal in situ thrombosis or distal embolization into the popliteal or shank arteries. Figure 1 Vascular anastomosis beginning at the position opposite the operator. Figure 2 Completed posterior wall suture line. Figure 3 Flushing the vessel with heparinized saline. Figure buy RG7420 4 Completed

anastomosis with knot on operator’s side. Conclusion Although techniques of vascular anastomosis after trauma are numerous in type and form, most surgeons will default to the one associated with the greatest comfort and ease. This report offers a rapid and reliable repair using a conceptually and operationally simple technique. Its methodology is appropriate for all repairs, including cases mandating the insertion of vascular conduit. We have employed this technique for the past 15 years in nearly all patients with vascular injuries, regardless of the site and size of the vessel.

This has included vessels of the neck, torso, upper and lower extremities. There have been no obvious complications associated with its use. Major advantages include: 1) the operating system is always oriented EVP4593 cell line towards the surgeon, 2) the almost posterior row of sutures is placed as both ends are readily visualized, avoiding the need for potentially obscuring traction stitches, and 3) flushing is easily performed prior to completing the anterior suture row. Consent Written informed consent was obtained from the injured patient for publication of this case report. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal. Acknowledgements Thank-you to Alex Derienko for the creation of all figures. References 1. Murphy JB: Resection of arteries and veins injured in continuity-end-to-end of suture-experimental and clinical research. Med Record 1897, 51:73. 2. Debakey ME, Simeone FA: Battle injuries of the arteries in World War II: An analysis of 2,471 cases. Ann Surg 1946, 123:534–541.CrossRef 3.

Ong et al used suturing or hair apposition in scalp lacerations

Ong et al. used suturing or hair apposition in scalp lacerations and reported fewer complications 7 days after the procedure with the hair apposition technique [9]. Kanegaye et al., in a study on pediatric scalp lacerations, compared stapling and suturing with respect to complication rates 7 days after the procedure and reported GDC-0068 in vivo fewer complications in stapling group [10]. We also found that the highest complication rate

was with suturing. The most common complications 7 days after the procedure included redness, pain, and hair loss, which occurred most commonly with suturing followed by stapling and hair apposition techniques. The highest rate of infection was associated with suturing technique followed by stapling technique. Hair loss,

an important cosmetic problem, occurred most commonly with suturing followed by stapling technique whereas hair apposition technique was not associated with hair loss 7 days after the procedure. Hock et al. reported a higher rate of satisfaction in patients treated with hair apposition technique compared with those treated with suturing technique. This high rate of satisfaction was related by the authors to the properties of the technique including quick application, less painful nature due to absence of need for anesthesia, and absence of need for shaving and suture removal [7]. Karaduman et al. applied Evofosfamide molecular weight all three techniques to their patients with scalp laceration and looked at patient satisfaction on day 30th. They reported a high rate

of satisfaction in those who were applied hair apposition technique and 97% of patients would prefer this method in the event they sustained a scalp laceration in the future [8]. The rate of satisfaction was related with the technique used, such that patients were dissatisfied with stapling and suturing while dissatisfaction rate was quite low. In our study, Assessment of 7th and 15th day satisfaction rates revealed significant differences in favor of hair apposition technique. The painless nature of the technique and absence Docetaxel cost of suture removal may have increased patient satisfaction. In our study there was a significant association between the technique used and emergence of cosmetic problems 15 days later. We found that cosmetic problems were most prevalent in patients treated with suturing while they were least common in those managed with hair apposition technique. We think that this is BIBW2992 mouse because there was no need to shave hairs in this technique and we carefully placed only one drop of glue on the crossed strands without bringing the glue into contact with the wound. Otherwise excessive amount of glue will result in hair knots, leading to haircut while contact of tissue adhesive with laceration will result in decreased hair growth [11]. Kanegaye et al.

Orthologous genes were identified as best hits using blastp analy

Orthologous genes were identified as best hits using blastp analysis (blastall v2.2.22) [71, 72] against local databases. Cut-offs of 50% identity over at least 80% of the sequence length and an expected value (e-value) of 1e-10 were applied. Orthology was confirmed by reciprocating the blastp analysis. Since the A-rich motif is short and degenerate it is expected that occurrences of the A-rich motif that are unrelated to Crc binding will be detected in this analysis, giving rise to false positive hits. In order to estimate

the rate of false positive hits in our analysis we searched for the A-rich motif in the AZD2171 manufacturer reverse Selleck LY3023414 orientation of the upstream regions of orthologous loci [73]. Since the A-rich motif in the reverse orientation is unrelated to Crc binding it is reasoned that this estimates the rate of occurrence of the A-rich motif in the sequence fragments tested. Predictably it was found that the use of more strains per species resulted in lower estimated rates of false positives (P. aeruginosa – 4 strains, 18% estimated false positives; P. fluorescens – 3 strains, Angiogenesis inhibitor 32% estimated false positives; P. putida – 3 strains, 26% estimated false positives; P. syringae – 2 strains, 41% estimated

false positives). Thus, it is estimated, based on the weighted mean false discovery rate, that approximately 73% of the Crc candidates in additional file 1 are genuine targets for Crc binding. Functional information about the translated protein sequences was obtained from the sequence headers Teicoplanin and by performing Blast2GO analysis [74]. Acknowledgements This research was supported in part by grants awarded by the Science Foundation of Ireland (grants 04/BR/B0597, 07/IN.1/B948, 08/RFP/GEN1295, 08/RFP/GEN1319 and 09/RFP/BMT2350), the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (RSF grants 06-321 and 06-377; FIRM grants 06RDC459, 06RDC506 and 08RDC629),

the European Commission (grant FP6#O36314 and Marie Currie TOK:TRAMWAYS), Irish Research Council for Science Engineering and Technology (grant 05/EDIV/FP107/INTERPAM), the Marine Institute (Beaufort award C&CRA2007/082), the Health Research Board (grants RP/2006/271 and RP/2007/290). P.B. is supported by a STRIVE Doctoral Scholarship from the Environmental Protection Agency, Ireland and the Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government provided by the Irish Government under the National Development Plan 2007-2013 (EPA-2006-S-21). We thank Pat Higgins for ongoing techncial support and members of our groups for useful discussions. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Crc candidates identified in every Pseudomonas spp. List of every locus bearing a Crc motif in P. aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, P. putida and P. syringae species. The numbers under strain names on the left indicate the locus id, according to Genbank annotation, of the locus with the A-rich motif in the upstream region.

Electroosmotic pumps [13], based on electrokinetics and operated

Electroosmotic pumps [13], based on electrokinetics and operated with no moving part, are a better way for liquid delivery since they are much easier to integrate in μTAS than the piezoelectric method. They are driven by electroosmosis (EO) which arises from the existence of an electrical double layer at the solid-liquid interface and holds great AZD6738 molecular weight promise in generating fluid flow in nanochannels under the influence of an electric field. Transport of analytes in nanochannels has been well studied by Pennathur and Santiago [14], and the concept can be conveniently adopted in our picoinjector.

The electroosmosis-based AZD4547 nmr picoinjector possesses an array of one-dimensional (1D) nanochannels for precise fluid transfer under the condition of applying the controlling signal. Potential applications

based on this picoinjector include precisely controlled chemical reactions [15], drug delivery [16], as well as biomolecular translocation [17]. All of these applications are based on the variation of the applied voltage bias across nanopores or nanochannels. In this paper, we reported a new approach of a picoinjector by means of 1D nanochannels which offers precise control click here of solution volume on the scale of picoliter. The injection rate or pumping rate was determined by measuring the fluorescent intensity subsequent to the injection of the fluorescent solution into the connected microchannel. Solutions of different ion concentrations were also utilized for simulating various scenarios. Moreover, microreaction between Fluo-4 and calcium ions was successfully demonstrated by our picoinjector to show the capability of our device in terms of its controllability of chemical reaction in a continuous phase. Physics background The origin of electroosmotic flow (EOF) is directly related to

the electrical double layer (EDL) which comes from Baf-A1 the ionization of silanol (SiOH) groups when the silica channel is filled with a buffer solution. Such reaction is represented by SiOH  ⇌ SiO-  +  H+. The silanol groups on the surface are ionized, forming a wall of negatively charged silanoate (SiO-) groups that are catalyzed by the OH- ions in the solution. The positive counterions compensate the wall of negative charge so that EDL is formed near the silica wall. The schematic illustration of this phenomenon is shown in Figure  1. The Stern layer is closest to the surface at which the positive charges are tightly held by the solid-liquid interface, while the next layer is the diffusion layer as depicted respectively in Figure  1a. The predominance of the positive ions in the diffusive region can be accounted by a negative potential, ζ potential, which serves as the boundary condition for the so-called Debye layer. The surface potential, Stern potential, and zeta potential and their respective locations within the nanochannel are illustrated in Figure  1b.

Streptomyces suspension cultures were grown three days in ISP-2 m

Streptomyces suspension cultures were grown three days in ISP-2 medium. From the tester strain, 40 μl of this suspension culture was applied on the lower part of an agar filled Petri dish, forming a line. After the sporulation of the tester strain begun, 3 parallel lines of the receiver strain were applied perpendicularly to the tester line. For

each Streptomyces pair, three tester and nine receiver lines were applied. The impact of the tester strain on the formation of receiver strain’s substrate Luminespib mycelium and sporulation was recorded at the time point of the onset of sporulation in the control cultures. Impact of Streptomyces culture filtrates and culture extracts on Combretastatin A4 purchase non-streptomycetous bacteria Pure culture filtrates and organic extracts of streptomycetes were tested against bacteria. Streptomyces suspension cultures were grown three days in ISP-2 medium. To obtain pure culture filtrate, the cells were centrifuged (3800 rpm, 10 min), and the supernatants were filtered (0.45 μm). Organic extracts were prepared selleck kinase inhibitor from the pure culture filtrates, which were adjusted to pH 5.0 and extracted 1:1 (vol/vol) with ethyl acetate. The organic phase was concentrated to dryness using a vacuum evaporator and re-dissolved in 1/10 of the

original volume in ethanol. Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis DSM 10, Staphylococcus aureus DSM 20231, Mycobacterium phlei DSM 750) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli K12 (W1130), Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 50090) were tested. Bacillus subtilis DSM 10 was initially cultured in DSMZ 1 medium at 37°C and tested on DSMZ 1 and MM 1 agar media. Staphylococcus aureus DSM 20231 was initially cultured in KM 1 medium at 37°C and tested on KM 1 agar medium. Mycobacterium phlei DSM 750 was initially cultured in KM 1 medium at 27°C and tested on KM 1 agar medium. Escherichia coli K12 (W1130) was initially Docetaxel mw cultured in KM 1 medium at 37°C and tested on KM 1 and MM 1 agar media. Pseudomonas fluorescens

DSM 50090 was initially cultured in KM 1 medium at 27°C and tested on KM 1 and MM 1 agar media. KM 1 medium consisted of 8 g Difco nutrient broth, 5 g NaCl, 20 g agar per 1 liter of de-ionized water. The pH was adjusted to pH 7.2 prior to sterilization. KM 5 medium consisted of 4 g yeast extract, 10 g malt extract, 4 g glucose, 20 g agar per liter un-distilled water. The pH was adjusted to pH 5.5 prior to sterilization. DSMZ1-medium consisted of 5 g Bacto peptone, 3 g malt extract, 10 mg MnSO4 x H2O and 20 g agar per liter of un-distilled water. The pH was adjusted to 5.5 prior to sterilization. MM1 medium [50] consisted of 5 g glucose, 0,5 g tri-sodium-citrate x 2 H2O, 3 g KH2PO4, 7 g K2HPO4, 0.1 g MgSO4 x 7 H2O, 1 g (NH4)2SO4 and 15 g Bacto agar.

Basionym: Hygrophorus subovinus Hesler & A H Sm , North America

Basionym: Hygrophorus subovinus Hesler & A. H. Sm., North American species of Hygrophorus: 162 (1963). Type: TENNESSEE, Cade’s Cove, Great Smoky Mt. National Park, 8 Jun 1957,

on soil in deciduous woods, Hesler 22583, TENN. Neohygrocybe lawsonensis (A. M. Young) Lodge & Padamsee, comb. nov. C59 wnt in vivo MycoBank MK-8776 MB804064. Basionym: Hygrocybe lawsonensis A. M. Young in A. M. Young & A. E. Wood, Austral. Syst. Bot. 10(6):981 (1997). Type: AUSTRALIA, New South Wales, on soil in sclerophyll forest, T. Lawson, 30 May 1992, UNSW 92/211. Neohygrocybe sect. Tristes (Bataille) Lodge & Padamsee, comb. nov. MycoBank MB804067. Basionym: Hygrophorus [unranked] Tristes Bataille, Mém. Soc. émul. Doubs, sér. 8 4:183 (1910). ≡ Hygrocybe sect. Tristes check details (Bataille) Singer, Lilloa 22: 151 (1951) [1949] [≡ Neohygrocybe sect. “Nitratae” Herink, superfluous, nom. illeg., Art. 52.1], Lectoype designated by Singer (1951): Hygrocybe nitrata (Pers.) Wünsche, Die Pilze: 112 (1877), ≡ Agaricus nitratus Pers., Syn. meth. fung. (Göttingen) 2: 356 (1801), ≡ Neohygrocybe nitrata (Pers.) Kovalenko, Opredelitel’ Gribov SSSR (Leningrad): 40 (1989), [≡ “Neohygrocybe nitrata” (Pers.) Herink (1959), nom. invalid., Art. 33.2]. N. Sect. Tristes is emended here by Lodge to include only the type species. Odor nitrous. Differs

from sect. Neohygrocybe in flesh not staining red when bruised. Phylogenetic support The collection sequenced from North Wales (as H. nitrata) matches the type description, ioxilan so we assume that the collection sequenced from Russia is an un-named cryptic species in sect. Nitratae. The collection identified as N. nitrata from N.Y. in the Supermatrix analysis is apparently N. ingrata. Inclusion of species of sect. Nitratae in phylogenetic analyses caused instability, but we retained them in the LSU analysis. N. nitrata and N. aff. nitrata appeared in separate clades in the LSU analysis. The LSU sequence from the Russian collection appears on a long branch near the base of sect. Neohygrocybe while the sequence from the Welsh Turlogh Hill collection appears on a long branch from the

backbone. The ambiguous support for this group indicates a need for further revision with greater taxon sampling, so we have tentatively retained the section. Species included Type species: Neohygrocybe nitrata. An un-named taxon from Russia resembling N. nitrata likely also belongs here based on morophology and molecular sequences. Comments Sect. Tristes (Bataille) Singer (1951) replaces the superfluous sect. Nitratae Herink (1959) based on priority, but we retained Herink’s narrower circumscription for this group. Some collections of N. nitrata reportedly have faint staining reactions, (DMB) and the placement of these needs to be verified with DNA sequencing. Porpolomopsis Bresinsky, Regensb. Mykol. Schr. 15: 145 (2008). Type species: Porpolomopsis calyptriformis (Berk.) Bresinsky, Regensb. Mykol. Schr. 15: 145 (2008) ≡ Hygrocybe calyptriformis (Berk.) Fayod, Annls. Sci. Nat. Bot., sér.