For each year, upwelling was determined between May and September to cover the part of the year when SST differences due to upwelling are strong enough to be visible, i.e. during the thermally stratified period of the year. A satellite data set of 443 SST maps has been compiled for the 20-year period. An additional source of SST data has also been provided from model simulations for the period 1990–2009. The numerical model used in this study is a general three-dimensional coupled sea ice-ocean model of the Baltic Sea (BSIOM, Lehmann and Hinrichsen, 2000 and Lehmann
and Hinrichsen, click here 2002). The horizontal resolution of the coupled sea-ice ocean model is at present 2.5 km, and in the vertical 60 levels are specified, which enables the top 100 m to be resolved with levels of 3 m thickness. The model domain comprises the Baltic Sea, including the Kattegat and Skagerrak. At the western boundary, a simplified North Sea basin is connected to the Skagerrak to take up sea level elevations and to provide characteristic North Sea water masses resulting from different forcing conditions LY294002 solubility dmso (Lehmann, 1995 and Novotny et al., 2005). The coupled sea ice-ocean model is forced by realistic
atmospheric conditions taken from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute’s (SMHI Norrköping, Sweden) meteorological database (Lars Mueller, personal communication), which covers the whole Baltic drainage basin on a regular grid of 1 × 1° with a temporal increment of 3 hours. The database consists Sunitinib cell line of synoptic measurements interpolated on the regular grid using a two-dimensional univariate optimum interpolation scheme. This database, which for modelling purposes is further interpolated onto the model grid, includes surface pressure, precipitation, cloudiness, air temperature and water vapour mixing ratio at 2 m height and geostrophic wind. Wind speed and direction at 10 m height are calculated from geostrophic winds with respect to different degrees of
roughness on the open sea and near coastal areas (Bumke et al. 1998). The BSIOM forcing functions, such as wind stress, radiation and heat fluxes, were calculated according to Rudolph & Lehmann (2006). From the model run for 1990–2009 daily mean SST maps (temperature in the uppermost level in the model with a thickness of 3 m) were extracted for the months of May to September, resulting in a database of 3060 SST maps. For the analysis of upwelling, detailed knowledge about the prevailing wind conditions is of vital importance. In accordance with the upwelling areas presented in Bychkova et al. (1988), daily mean 10-m wind data were extracted from the model forcing database for 21 stations close to the Baltic Sea coastline. The stations chosen represent the wind conditions for the specific upwelling areas along the Baltic Sea coastline.