Frequencies of superficial, moderate and severe wear increased wi

Frequencies of superficial, moderate and severe wear increased with body size. The same trend was observed for North Atlantic killer whales. 25 Only these latter two species corroborated the pattern of increase in frequency of dental wear with ageing and growth. 9, 11, 19, 20 and 23 Statistical analysis showed that these variables were dependant, but determination coefficients were not high. This may suggest that other factors besides growth and ageing may be influencing dental wear in cetaceans,

as observed with populational differences in dental wear for killer whales in the Northern hemisphere. 25 and 26 Theoretically, one would expect equal prevalence of tooth wear for both sexes.23, 30 and 43 Etoposide in vitro Ramos et al.24 did not find differences in tooth measurements between sexes in S. guianensis, suggesting a homogeneous prevalence of dental wear. The same was observed with S. guianensis in our sample. On the other hand, in our study females of the bottlenose dolphin (T. truncatus) presented higher wear frequencies than males. Although there may be behavioural particularities that could explain the differences observed, it high throughput screening compounds is also possible that this difference is related to changes

in physiology. In some bat species, resorption of calcium is high in females during lactation and prolonged hibernation, which could provoke changes in hardness of dental tissues and lead to fractures and more susceptibility to wear. 44 The same phenomenon is well known for pregnant women, whose skeleton is remodelled with loss of bony tissue due to transferring of serum calcium to the foetus during gestation and later during lactation. 45 and 46 For a few species of dolphins, resorption of dental tissues leading

to internal and external changes has been related to regulation of blood serum calcium due to stressful events such as parturition. 47 However, it remains unclear why only females of T. truncatus have higher wear rates, if the same physiological dynamics is expected to happen in females of other dolphin species. This issue is still poorly understood and deserves further investigation. Dental wear in dolphins needs further study and understanding, as observed with the difficulties oxyclozanide in explanations noted above. Variation among species in relation to frequencies of prevalence, intensity and anatomical extent also need to be better understood. However, our results include one of the first detailed accounts of dental wear in several species of dolphins, animals with specialised tooth morphology and distinct functional and biomechanical demands in comparison to terrestrial mammals. As observed with most wild mammals, dental wear is a normal physiological process derived from teeth usage throughout life and most likely it does not reflect health and physical condition.

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