g., number of receptor or transporters) represent alternatives.”
“The length-active tension relation or heterometric regulation (Frank-Starling mechanism) is modulated by nitric oxide (NO) which, released in pulsatile fashion from the beating heart, improves myocardial relaxation and diastolic distensibility. The NO signaling is also implicated in the homeometric regulation
exerted by extrinsic factors such as autonomic nervous system, endocrine and humoral agents.
In the in vitro working frog heart, the Chromogranin A (CGA)-derived peptide, Catestatin (D’S: bovine CGA344-364), exerts a direct cardio-suppressive action through a NOS-NO-cGMP-mediated mechanism which requires the functional integrity of the endocardial endothelium (EE) and its endothelin-1 B type (ETB) receptor. However, functional interplay between
NO and CTS and their role in the Frank-Starling response of the IPI-549 in vivo frog heart are lacking. Here we show that CTS improves the sensitivity to preload increases similar to GLUT inhibitor that exerted by NO. This effect is abolished by inhibition of NO synthase (L-NAME), guanylate cyclase (ODQ), protein kinase G (KT5823), PI3K (Wortmannin), as well as by the functional damage of EE (Triton X-100) suggesting that CTS operates through an EE-dependent NO release.
On the whole, the use of the avascular frog heart revealed the EE as major sensor-transducer interface between the physical (volume load) and chemical (CTS) stimuli, NO functioning as a connector between heterometric and homeometric regulation. Fedratinib (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) mutants of lactobacilli suppress inflammation in animal models of experimental colitis. The fact that a single mutation of an administered Lactobacillus strain can result in
enhanced probiotic efficacy is surprising given the genetic diversity and complexity of the intestinal niche, but at the same time exciting from a microbiological, immunological and gastroenterological point of view. In this Opinion article, we discuss the possible impacts of LTA modification in probiotic bacteria in the context of the current knowledge regarding the proinflammatory capacity of LTA, structure-activity relationships of LTA, intestinal LTA recognition in healthy and colitis conditions and anti-inflammatory molecules of lactobacilli.”
“Purpose: In men with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy, a rapid prostate specific antigen doubling time is associated with adverse outcomes, and is often used to guide the type and timing of salvage therapy. It is unknown whether prostate specific antigen doubling time calculated in the ultrasensitive range (prostate specific antigen less than 0.2 ng/ml) accurately reflects measures performed in the traditional range (prostate specific antigen greater than 0.2 ng/ml).