(I Vase Surg 2009;50: 286-91 )”
“Functional magnetic resonan

(I Vase Surg 2009;50: 286-91.)”
“Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure neural activations in subjects instructed to silently read novels at

ordinary and rapid speeds. Among the 19 subjects, 8 were experts in WH-4-023 purchase a rapid reading technique. Subjects pressed a button to turn pages during reading, and the interval between turning pages was recorded to evaluate the reading speed. For each subject, we evaluated activations in 14 areas and at 2 instructed reading speeds. Neural activations decreased with increasing reading speed in the left middle and posterior superior temporal area, left inferior frontal area, left precentral area, and the anterior temporal areas of both hemispheres, which have been reported to be active for linguistic processes, while neural activation increased with increasing reading speed in the right intraparietal sulcus, which is considered to reflect visuo-spatial processes. Despite the considerable reading speed differences, correlation analysis showed no significant difference in activation dependence on reading speed with respect to the subject groups and instructed reading speeds. The activation

reduction with speed increase in language-related areas was opposite to the previous reports for low reading speeds. selleck chemical The present results suggest that subjects reduced linguistic processes with reading speed increase from ordinary to rapid speed. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland

Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: To study the risk factors and rate of progression of asymptomatic carotid stenosis in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

Methods: Between July 1999 and September 2003, we studied consecutive patients referred to a vascular laboratory for peripheral arterial occlusive disease who had not experienced neurologic symptoms within the previous 3 years. Carotid duplex ultrasound scan (DUS) was performed at baseline and at 6 to 12-month intervals. The internal carotid artery peak systolic velocity (PSV) LDK378 was used to determine severity of carotid stenosis. Multilevel linear regression modeling (MLM) was used to identify the rate of progression and risk factors for progression.

Results: For 614 consecutive patients, median follow-up by DUS was 30 (2-42) months. Patients were 73 +/- 10-years-old, and 62% were men. Mean ankle-brachial index (ABI) was 0.79 +/- 0.24. The baseline prevalence of carotid stenosis >= 50% (PSV >= 125 cm/second) was 22%. During follow-up, ipsilateral amaurosis fugax, transient ischemic attacks, and strokes occurred in 3 (0.4%), 7 (1.1%), and 5 (0.8%) patients, respectively. Overall, there was little progression in carotid stenosis. Female gender, low ABI, and smoking were risk factors for progression of disease regardless of severity of carotid stenosis.

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