It is part of the
main axis of the basal ganglia (BG) that connects the thalamo-cortical networks to the BG input stages (striatum and subthalamic nucleus) and continues directly, and indirectly through the GPe, to the BG output stages (GPi and substantia nigra reticulata). Here we review the unique anatomical and physiological features of the pallidal complex and argue that they support the main computational goal of the BG main axis (actor); Barasertib ic50 namely, a behavioral policy that maximizes future cumulative gains and minimizes costs. The three mono-layer competitive networks of the BG main axis flexibly extract relevant features from the current stale of the thalamo-cortical activity to control current (ongoing) and future actions. We hypothesize that the striatal and the subthalamic projections neurons act as mono-stable integrators (class I excitability) and the in-vivo PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor pallidal neurons act as bi-stable resonators (class II excitability). GPe neurons exhibit pausing behavior because their membrane potential lingers in the vicinity of an unstable equilibrium point and bi-stability, and these pauses enable a less-greedy exploratory behavioral policy. Finally, degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and striatal dopamine depletion (as in Parkinson’s disease) lead to augmentation
of striatal excitability and competitive dynamics. As a consequence the pallidal network, whose elements tend to synchronize as a result of their bi-stable resonance behavior, shifts from a Poissonian-like non-correlated to synchronous oscillatory discharge mode.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Function and Dysfunction of the Basal Ganglia. (C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background There is emerging evidence from behavioural studies in humans for nicotinic modulation of inhibitory control. Administration of nicotine, however, also increases general arousal, and this may be responsible for the cognitive enhancing
effects of nicotine.
Discussion To test an arousal explanation Tacrolimus (FK506) of nicotine’s effects on cognitive inhibition, this study compared the separate and combined effects of an acute dose of nicotine and an arousal manipulation on inhibitory processes associated with the retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) paradigm.
Results In a double blind placebo controlled design, 1.0 mg of nicotine delivered via nasal spray to non-smoking healthy young adults significantly increased the retrieval-induced forgetting observed in episodic list learning, relative to the placebo condition. In contrast, negative arousal evoked by an unsolvable anagram task had no effect either separately or in combination with nicotine.
Conclusion This result argues against the attribution of nicotine-induced changes in RIF performance to non-specific arousal effects.