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need for change in clinical education practices. Phys Ther 2002, 82:160–172.PubMed Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions MB conceived the paper, interpreted data and wrote the final manuscript; CZ conceived the paper, interpreted data and wrote the final manuscript; AP reviewed and commented the last version of the manuscript; AMDN helped to revise the first draft of the manuscript; MS and GS reviewed and commented the last version of the manuscript; FP interpreted data, reviewed and commented the last version of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background The lymphatic system functions in regulating tissue fluid balance and immune cell trafficking, and it is involved in the pathogenesis of edema and metastasis. Tumor cell dissemination to lymph nodes (LNs) through the lymphatic system is common and early event in human this website Malignant tumors. LN metastasis is the first sign of tumor progression in most malignant tumors, and is a crucial determinant in their staging, prognosis,

and treatment [1]. Lymphatic metastasis was considered a passive process, where detached tumor cells entered LNs via pre-existing lymphatic vessels proximate to the primary tumors [2]. Sentinel LNs (SLNs) pheromone are defined as the first LNs to receive cells and fluid from primary tumors through lymphatic vessels [3]. Malignant cells at SLNs were believed to then enter the blood stream via high endothelial venules or continue through the lymphatic drainage system, exiting into the blood stream via anastomoses such as the thoracic duct [4]. Changes in LNs begin before metastasis, a process termed tumor-reactive lymphadenopathy [5]. Regional LNs proximate to the primary tumors are commonly enlarged because of reactive lymphadenopathy, tumor metastasis, or both, suggesting that LN alteration results from interactions between tumors and the lymphatic system.

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