Our result is in parallel with the result of a recent study indic

Our result is in parallel with the result of a recent study indicating that the synovial fluid levels of adiponectin are correlated with aggrecan degradation markers in patients with knee OA. However, Chen et al. reported that adiponectin did not alter the expression levels of MMP 3 and MMP 13 mRNA. The contrasting results regarding the effect of adiponectin might be due to experimental conditions. Chen et al. used chondrocytes from the OA knees with diverse severities and evaluated the effects in monolayered cells at passages 3 to 7, whereas we isolated chondrocytes from the OA knees with Kellgren Lawrence grade 3 or 4 and grew them in suspension at passage 0. Because OA chondrocyte beha vior and phenotypes can be affected by the surrounding matrix state, culture methods, and passage numbers, this might have contributed to the difference of adiponectin induced responses in each study.
Another possibility is a different composition of adipo nectin isoforms due to a different biologic source from which adiponectin is produced. Native adiponectin has a multimeric structure and circulates selleckchem p38 inhibitor in blood as trimers, hexamers, and high molecular weight com plexes. Biologic effects mediated by adiponectin have been considered to be isoform dependent. HMW adiponectin has pro inflammatory effects, whereas the low molecular weight isoform has antiinflammatory functions in human leukocytes and monocytic cells. We used HEK293 cell derived full length adiponectin, the most abundant isoforms of which are hexamers and HMW forms, followed by tri mers.
This composition is similar to that of human OA synovial fluid in which hexamers and HMW forms are the most abundant isoforms. Conversely, full length adiponectin derived from Escherichia coli lacks selleck chemicals HMW forms. Morevoer, adiponectin of the same isoform could display a different potency to induce a biologic response depending on whether it is E. coli derived or mammalian cell derived. adiponectin produced in mammalian cells seems to be functionally more potent than bacterially produced adiponectin because the HMW form is a predominantly active form. Because it is believed that E. coli derived adiponectin was used in the previous studies, pro inflamma tory effects of adiponectin might not have been fully developed in those studies. Biologic effects of adiponectin are mediated mainly through two receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, and these two receptors are believed to activate different sig naling pathways. AdipoR1 activates the AMPK pathway, whereas AdipoR2 is linked more closely with the peroxi some proliferator activated receptor a path way in the liver.

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