The affinity of their interaction depends on the sequence of the

The affinity of their interaction depends on the sequence of the HLA-E-bound nonamers and is higher for NKG2A than for NKG2C 14, 15. In the CD56dim subset, NKG2C expression largely excludes NKG2A expression 10, 16. Expression of

NKG2C is induced Palbociclib ic50 by co-culture with HCMV-infected fibroblasts and correlates with HCMV seropositivity in healthy donors 16, 17. Recently, NKG2C+ NK cells were shown to expand during HIV and hantavirus infections in HCMV-seropositive patients, suggesting that HCMV may prime the NK-cell compartment for specific expansion of the NKG2C+ subset upon additional viral encounters 18, 19. Two recent papers have demonstrated increased expression of check details NKG2C on NK cells in patients with chronic HBV and HCV infection 20, 21. Therefore, we choose this clinical setting to perform an in-depth characterization of the NKG2C+ NK-cell subset. We show that NKG2C+CD56dim NK cells are terminally differentiated, highly polyfunctional and display a clonal expression of inhibitory KIRs with specificity for self-HLA class-I molecules. Although such biased expression of self-specific receptors confers functional education, it may also serve to dampen autoreactivity and tissue damage during chronic viral infection. We monitored the frequency of NKG2C+ NK cells in 32 patients with HBV infection and 36 with HCV infection during the

chronic phase of their disease (Table 1 and Fig. 1A). Similar to the previous reports in patients with HIV and acute hantavirus infection 18, 19, the NKG2C expression level in this study was associated with HCMV Tolmetin seropositivity in patients with chronic HBV and HCV (Fig. 1B). Consistent with previous studies, expansion of NKG2C+ NK cells does not seem to occur in all HCMV seropositive individuals 16, 22, 23. The reason for this is unknown. We speculated

that one possibility could be HCMV reactivation, since this has been reported to be common in patients with HCV and HBV 24, 25. However, using a highly sensitive PCR method, we could not detect any evidence for undergoing viral reactivation in blood or liver (data not shown). Interestingly, anti-HCMV IgG were found in 96 and 81% of HBV- and HCV-infected patients respectively. Given the median age (40–50 years) of the studied cohorts, a seropositivity of >80% is high compared with the prevalence of HCMV that has been reported for large cohorts of age-matched European populations 26, 27. One possible explanation for the unusually high frequency of HCMV seropositivity seen here is the diverse ethnicity in the studied cohorts. Furthermore, viral co-infections might be more common in risk groups, such as intravenous drug users, prone to acquire HBV and/or HCV 28. In conclusion, our results suggest that HCMV is responsible for the expansion of NKG2C+ NK cells in patients with HCV and HBV.

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