The temperate litter has a higher operational

taxonomic u

The temperate litter has a higher operational

taxonomic unit (OTU) diversity than the tropical litter, paralleling the trend in soil diversity. Overall, it is striking that the difference in community composition between the leaf litter and the soil a few centimeters underneath is about the same as that between leaf litter in tropical and temperate climates, thousands of kilometers apart. However, one substantial difference was that the leaf litter of two tropical forest sites, Meranti and Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), was overwhelmingly dominated by the single genus Burkholderia, AZD8186 in vitro at 37 and 23 % of reads, respectively. The 454 sequencing result showed that most Burkholderia species in tropical leaf litter belong to nonpathogenic “plant beneficial” lineages. The differences from the temperate zone in the bacterial community of tropical forest litter may be partly a product of its differing chemistry, although the unvarying climate might also play a role, as might interactions with other organisms such as fungi. The single genus Burkholderia may be seen as potentially playing a major role in decomposition and nutrient cycling in tropical forests, BYL719 nmr but apparently not in temperate forests.”
“The cis-regulatory element contributed to gaining humanness is of great interest in human evolutionary studies.

A human-accelerated region exceeding neutral evolutionary rates, termed HACNS1, was recently reported as a positively selected sequence acquiring novel TF-binding sites responsible for human-specific gain of limb enhancer function. However, another possibility is loss of function in repressor element in HACNS1. Signature of the human substitutions in Sapitinib cell line the 81-bp region infers that a GC-biased gene conversion (BGC) might create these seemingly excessive substitutions. To evaluate the 81-bp function, we performed transgenic mouse assay of the HACNS1 construct lacking the 81-bp region. The deleted construct showed similar enhancer activity to the intact human HACNS1, suggesting that the function of the human 81-bp region is not an activating enhancer but rather a disrupted repressor. This result infers that

loss of function in the HACNS1 81-bp region, possibly via a BGC, played an important role in human-specific evolution.”
“Zinc-finger domains are found in many nucleic acid-binding proteins in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Proteins carrying zinc-finger domains have important roles in various nuclear transactions, including transcription, mRNA processing and mRNA export; however, for many individual zinc-finger proteins in eukaryotes, the exact function of the protein is not fully understood. Here, we report that Red5 is involved in efficient suppression of specific mRNAs during vegetative growth of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Red5, which contains five C3H1-type zinc-finger domains, localizes to the nucleus where it forms discrete dots.

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