These findings suggest that abnormal neurotransmitter responses may be the basis for amnesia produced by inhibition of protein synthesis. The present experiment extends these findings to the hippocampus and adds acetylcholine (ACh) to the list of neurotransmitters affected by anisomycin. Using in vivo microdialysis at the site of injection, release of NE, DA, and ACh was measured before and learn more after injections of anisomycin into the hippocampus.
Anisomycin impaired inhibitory avoidance memory when rats were tested 48 h after training and also produced substantial increases in local release of NE, DA, and ACh. In an additional experiment, pretreatment with intrahippocampal injections of propranolol prior to anisomycin and training significantly attenuated anisomycin-induced amnesia. The disruption of neurotransmitter release patterns at the site of injection appears to contribute significantly to the mechanisms underlying amnesia produced by protein synthesis inhibitors, calling into question the dominant interpretation that the amnesia reflects loss of training-initiated protein synthesis necessary for memory formation. Instead, the findings suggest that proteins needed for memory formation are available prior to an experience, and that post-translational modifications of these proteins may be sufficient to enable the formation of new
“Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) has been conceptualized as see more a transitional stage between healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, understanding which aspects of memory are impaired and which Lepirudin remain relatively intact in these patients can be useful in
determining who will ultimately go on to develop AD, and subsequently designing interventions to help patients live more engaged and independent lives. The dual-process model posits that recognition memory decisions can rely on either familiarity or recollection. Whereas research is fairly consistent in showing impaired recollection in patients with aMCI, the results have been mixed regarding familiarity. A noted difference between these studies investigating familiarity has been stimulus type. The goal of the current investigation was to use high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) to help elucidate the neural correlates of recognition decisions in patients with aMCI for words and pictures. We also hoped to help answer the question of whether patients can rely on familiarity to support successful recognition. Patients and controls participated in separate recognition memory tests of words and pictures while ERPs were recorded during retrieval. Results showed that ERP components typically associated with familiarity and retrieval monitoring were similar between groups for pictures. However, these components were diminished in the patient group for words.