“The objective of the current study is to


“The objective of the current study is to

investigate the role of the nicotinic receptor beta 4 subunit in the antidepressant activity of bupropion. Wild-type (beta 4+/+) and knockout (beta 4-/-) mice were intraperitoneally administered with normal saline (control) or bupropion (40 mg/kg) daily for the first two weeks. Forced swim tests were performed on day 1 to determine the acute effect of bupropion at 0, 15, 30, 45, or 60 min after the injection, and after two weeks of daily treatment to determine the chronic effects. To C188-9 manufacturer examine the remnant effects of bupropion after withdrawal, forced swim tests were performed one and two weeks after the last day of treatment with bupropion. Our results indicate that: (1) the acute treatment with bupropion increases the swimming

time (i.e., antidepressant effect) in beta 4+/+ and beta 4-/- mice from both genders, (2) the antidepressant effect after the chronic treatment is seen only in female beta 4+/+ mice, and (3) the residual antidepressant effect of bupropion persists only in male beta 4+/+ mice after WZB117 one week withdrawal. We conclude that the beta 4 subunit plays a modulatory role in the chronic antidepressant effect mediated by bupropion, and that its effect is gender-specific. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Human vascular endothelial growth factor isoform 165 (VEGF165) is the first known member belonging to the VEGF protein family that plays a critical role in new blood vessel formation in vivo. This study presents a new protocol with optimized conditions for rapidly producing untagged recombinant and biological active human VEGF165 (rhVEGF165) using Escherichia coli cells. Protein was isolated from inclusion Calpain bodies, purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography, and subjected to protein refolding and renaturation. The biological activity of rhVEGF165 is comparable with VEFG from eukaryotic source

according to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) proliferation assay. Therefore, the present procedures provide a fast and easy way to produce this therapeutic protein. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Purpose: We explored the impact of once daily tadalafil on urodynamic measures in men with lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia via invasive and noninvasive urodynamic studies.

Materials and Methods: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial comparing once daily tadalafil 20 mg vs placebo during 12 weeks in men with lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia with or without bladder outlet obstruction. Invasive and noninvasive urodynamics, International Prostate Symptom Score and general safety were assessed. The primary study end point was change in detrusor pressure at maximum urinary flow rate.

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