reported the incidental finding that IH regress in children treated with propranolol, a nonselective beta-blocker used in treating infants with cardiac and
renal conditions selleck screening library . In most case reports, propranolol was not used as a single therapy of IH, patients received concomitant systemic or intralesional steroids and laser treatment . Schiestl et al. in their study included only infants with IH treated exclusively with propranolol at a dose of 2 mk/kg/day, and in all patients there was a significant cosmetic improvement . The effect of propranolol on IH can be attributed to molecular mechanisms: vasoconstriction, decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) genes through the down-regulation of the RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, inhibition of angiogenesis, and induction of apoptosis . Treatment with propranolol may cause severe systemic complications and infants need to be closely monitored , , , , ,  and . During propranolol therapy of our patient, potassium, sodium, chlorine,
glucose, liver enzymes, morphology, vital signs and ECG were monitored. The most common reported side effects of propranolol include hypotension, bradycardia, hypoglycemia and bronchospasm Selleckchem Trametinib , , , , ,  and . Moreover propranolol may mask the clinical signs of early cardiac failure, diminish cardiac performance, and blunt clinical features of hypoglycemia. Prolonged hypoglycemia in infancy is associated with
neurologic sequelae . During ambulatory surveillance we did not observe hypoglycemia, hypotension or adverse cardiac effects. The treatment was well tolerated. For small, superficial IH treatment options are: intralesional steroids, PDL treatment, topical steroids, imiquimod 5% cream and topical propranolol hydrochloride or timolol maleate . Several studies indicate that topical timolol gel is effective and safe for the treatment of IH and can an alternative or complementary to systemic propranolol . Topical timolol is effective not only in stopping hemangioma growth, but also causes PLEKHB2 decreased tumor volume . Guo and Ni were the first who reported the positive effects of the use of topical timolol in treating capillary IH in a 4-month-old infant . At the World Congress of Paediatric Dermatology in Bangkok in 2009, Pope and Chakkiiakandiyil  reported on a pilot study showing that topical timolol had successful effect in the treatment of superficial IH. Timolol does not penetrate deeply and can be only used in superficial IH. The mechanism of action is not clear, but presumably is the same as for propranolol . The advantages of topical tomolol are low cost, ease of administration, and minimal risk of drug-related adverse events. Several case reports connect wheezing, bradycardia, and respiratory depression, especially in infants with the long-term use of timolol ocular solution .