The sharp boundaries of gap and pair-rule domains, together with evidence for auto-regulation and mutual repression has led to proposals that
these genes operate as bistable switches [56, 57 and 58]. In the simplest model , the posterior hb boundary forms owing to bistability arising from hb auto-activation. As Bcd concentration decreases from anterior to posterior, a bifurcation creates a ‘Hb off’ state, repressing hb in the posterior of the embryo. However, a boundary formed by this mechanism is extremely sensitive selleck chemicals to fluctuations in Bcd concentration. More generally, creating a series of boundaries along the A–P axis in this manner will not be structurally stable since it would require bifurcations to occur every few nuclei. While the models described above remain largely conceptual, the non-linear dynamics of morphogen target interactions can also be studied using regulatory networks inferred from quantitative gene expression data [48, 50••, 59 and 60]. The key advantage of such an approach is that it does not prescribe any particular mechanism, such as bistability, but instead
derives systems dynamics directly from data. This has led to important new insights into gap gene regulation: for instance, the establishment of seven gap gene boundaries, involving 24 regulatory interactions, can be understood in terms of just three dynamical mechanisms: (1) movement of attractor position, (2) selection of attractors by initial conditions, and (3) selection of states Tau-protein kinase on a transient attracting trajectory. In contrast to the model described above , posterior hb boundary formation does not rely on the creation of a Afatinib cost ‘Hb
off’ state by a bifurcation – such a state coexists with ‘Hb on’ in both anterior and posterior nuclei – but on the selection of one of these two states by maternal Hb concentration (Figure 2d). Since the attractors and their basins of attraction are determined by Bcd and Cad concentrations and their selection is determined by maternal Hb concentration, these dynamics imply that hb integrates both anterior and posterior maternal information to form its border. The integration of regulatory input from both anterior and posterior maternal systems is supported by experimental evidence [ 21• and 61]. It underlies the insensitivity of hb boundary position to Bcd variation [ 49 and 60]. There is only one bifurcation in the middle of the embryo, posterior to the hb boundary, and therefore, the dynamics in the two halves of the embryo are structurally stable. Regulatory networks among morphogen targets are complex, and remain difficult to model. No models exist that accurately and systematically reproduce interactions involving pair-rule genes, or D–V target genes. Furthermore, little progress has been made in the past few years, beyond the models described above and in [15••], with regard to modeling gap or segment-polarity gene expression.