In addition, Selleckchem XAV-939 Sika deer yield high quality meat and skin. Domestication of Sika deer began much later than for other ruminants. At present, the number of domesticated Sika deer in China is approximately 550,000 head, most of which are distributed in northwestern China. In nature, Sika deer graze a wide range of forage types, such as Amur grape, elm, maple, bamboo and some toxic species including Chinese Stellera roots and large flowered larkspurs. Moreover, grazing Sika deer have been observed to prefer tannin-rich plants, such as oak leaves. Similar behavior has also been observed in wild Sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) inhabiting the Shiretoko Peninsula of Hokkaido Island in Japan, and
in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) [1, 2]. However, domesticated Sika deer held in captivity are commonly fed corn stalks containing a much higher fibrous content. Like other ruminants, Sika deer Kinase Inhibitor Library depend on the rumen for fermentation that involves the conversion of plant fiber to volatile fatty acids. This involves a diverse and dense array of microorganisms, including
bacteria, fungi, archaea and protozoa . Among these microorganisms this website bacterial populations have been extensively studied for many years since rumen bacteria have important roles in the efficient degradation of plant biomass and detoxification of secondary compounds in plants [1, 4–7]. This has led to a variety of studies investigating rumen bacterial structure have been conducted on domestic cows, sheep, yak, Reindeer in Norway and wild Sika deer in Japan [4, 5, 8–10]. Moreover, rumen bacterial communities
are affected by the host and diet [11, 12]. To our knowledge, very little is known about the rumen bacterial community old of domesticated Sika deer in China. A comprehensive understanding of bacterial ecology in the rumen of domesticated Sika deer is necessary to increase the efficiency of fiber digestion and to improve the productivity of velvet antlers. Thus, we hypotheses the bacterial communities in the rumen of domesticated Sika deer may be unique. And the objectives of the present study were: (1) to describe the bacterial diversity in the rumen from domesticated Sika deer ingesting different diets based on 16S rRNA gene sequence libraries and PCR-DGGE; and (2) to compare the unique rumen bacterial populations of domesticated Sika deer ingesting tannin-rich and fiber-rich materials. Results Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries from two groups A total of 239 non-chimeric sequences were analyzed, 139 sequences from the OL 16S rRNA clone library and 100 sequences from the CS clone library. The two rumen bacterial populations were distinct according to the RDP classifier tool at a confidence threshold of 80% (Figure 1). Within the two groups, members of the phylum Bacteroidetes were the predominant bacteria (99.3% and 85% of clones in the OL and CS groups, respectively).