Less self-determined forms of motivation could be internalized to be more self-determined forms of motivation by satisfying the individuals’ basic psychological needs, which are presumed to be universal aspects of human beings across developmental and cross-cultural settings. Many studies across domains have been conducted to estimate the correlates and consequences of autonomous and controlled motivation. Consistently, autonomous motivation has been correlated with greater persistence, find more a more positive affect, enhanced performance, and greater psychological well-being.5 To examine the exercise motivation within the SDT framework, a number of behavioral regulation measures have been developed e.g.,
the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ),6 the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2),7 the Exercise Motivation Scale (EMS),8 and the Perceived Locus of Causality (PLOC).9 The most widely used one is the Fluorouracil supplier BREQ-2, which is a revised version of the 15-item BREQ by adding an amotivation subscale (4 items) and renamed as the BREQ-2.7 The BREQ-2 is a self-report measure assessing amotivation, plus external, introjected, identified, and intrinsic regulations. In common with some other behavioral regulation instruments for different
contexts,10 it does not attempt to distinguish between integrated regulation and intrinsic regulation because it is thought that these two forms of regulation are easy to distinguish theoretically but difficult to distinguish empirically.6 Therefore, the BREQ-2 is a five
correlated factor, 19-item measure. Previous studies have provided strong empirical evidence for the validity6, 7, 11, 12 and 13 and reliability7, 14 and 15 of the scores derived from the BREQ/BREQ-2. Furthermore, the factor loadings and factor variance and covariance of the structure of the instrument were found to be invariant across gender.6 All of these findings suggest that the instrument (BREQ/BREQ-2) is psychometrically strong and appropriate for research Vasopressin Receptor in the exercise setting. The translation of relevant instruments to other languages is thought to be a method for extending the application of theories and models across cultures and nations.11 The BREQ-2 has been translated into several languages, such as Spanish, Greek, and Chinese, and the psychometric properties of the BREQ-2 in different languages have been examined.11, 12 and 16 The factor structure hypothesized in the original scale was replicated, and the internal reliabilities of the subscales were also found to be acceptable. However, one identified regulation item (I get restless if I don’t exercise regularly) was found problematic, and was finally removed from the final translated versions of the BREQ-2 (e.g., the Spanish version BREQ-2,12 the Greek version BREQ-2,11 the Chinese version BREQ-216).