The causes and mechanisms of disease responsible for this syndrome remain elusive.
Method of study We report two cases of maternal deaths attributed to AFE: (1) one woman presented with spontaneous labor at term, developed intrapartum fever, and after delivery had sudden cardiovascular collapse and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), leading to death; (2) another woman presented with preterm labor and foul-smelling amniotic fluid, underwent a Cesarean section for fetal distress, and also had postpartum cardiovascular collapse and DIC, leading to death. Results Of Nutlin-3 research buy major importance is that in both cases, the maternal plasma concentration of tumor necrosis
factor-α at the time of admission to the hospital and when patients had no clinical evidence of infection was in the lethal range (a lethal range is considered to be above 0.1 ng/mL). Conclusion We propose that subclinical intraamniotic infection may be a cause of postpartum cardiovascular collapse and DIC and resemble AFE. Thus, some patients with the clinical diagnosis of AFE may have infection/systemic inflammation as a mechanism of disease. These observations have implications for the understanding of the mechanisms of disease of patients who develop cardiovascular collapse and DIC, frequently attributed to AFE. It may be possible Selleckchem MG 132 to identify a subset of patients who have biochemical and immunological evidence of systemic inflammation at the time of admission, and before a catastrophic event occurs. “
“Regulatory B (Breg) cells have been shown to play a critical role in immune homeostasis and in autoimmunity models. We have recently demonstrated many that combined anti-T
cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-1 and anti-CD45RB antibody treatment results in tolerance to full MHC-mismatched islet allografts in mice by generating Breg cells that are necessary for tolerance. Breg cells are antigen-specific and are capable of transferring tolerance to untreated, transplanted animals. Here, we demonstrate that adoptively transferred Breg cells require the presence of regulatory T (Treg) cells to establish tolerance, and that adoptive transfer of Breg cells increases the number of Treg cells. Interaction with Breg cells in vivo induces significantly more Foxp3 expression in CD4+CD25− T cells than with naive B cells. We also show that Breg cells express the TGF-β associated latency-associated peptide and that Breg-cell mediated graft prolongation post-adoptive transfer is abrogated by neutralization of TGF-β activity. Breg cells, like Treg cells, demonstrate preferential expression of both C-C chemokine receptor 6 and CXCR3.