Furthermore, a double-blind randomized controlled trial compared the effects of propranolol, gabapentin, or placebo in individuals
admitted to a level 1 surgical trauma center. Propranolol was administered within 48 hours for a period of 14 days, including uptitration for 2 days at 60 mg daily, acute treatment 120 mg daily for 8 days, and tapering for 4 days.72 At 1- and 4-month follow-up, neither propranolol nor gabapentin led to superior outcomes in terms of PTSD and depressive symptoms. In the most recent randomized placebo-controlled studyexamining the effects of propranolol in 41 acutely traumatized individuals recruited from an ER, Hoge and colleagues73 demonstrated no significant effect of up to 240 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical mg/day of propranolol administered for 19 days on PTSD symptoms assessed at 1 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and 3 months post-trauma. However, in a subgroup of participants who exhibited high drug adherence, physiological reactivity during traumatic memory recall was significantlyreduced 5 weeks post-trauma in individuals who had received
propranolol as compared with placebo. Can propranolol change the course of PTSD when it targets reconsolidation of the traumatic memory? In patients with chronic PTSD, three open-label trials Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (n=28; n=7; n=32) have demonstrated that the inhibitor expert administration of propranolol combined with reactivation of the traumatic memory led to a reduction in PTSD symptom severity by 50% to 56% and a decline in the rate of PTSD diagnosis of 71% to 86%. 74 Similar results were reported by Menzies in a study of 36 chronic PTSD cases75 and an open-label trial by Pound j a and colleagues.76 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical However, placebo-controlled randomized control trials will need to confirm these results. Additionally, Brunet and colleagues77 examined physiological responses in individuals with chronic PTSD in response to administration of propranolol or placebo subsequent to traumatic memory reactivation. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Results demonstrated decreased physiological response to later traumatic memory recall with
propranolol but not placebo. A striking finding in these studies is that a single reactivation session was sufficient to induce reconsolidation in www.selleckchem.com/products/Y-27632.html memories that were 30 years old. In summary, even though data suggest that propranolol can reduce psychophysiological response associated with both recent and remote traumatic memories, its effect Batimastat in PTSD symptoms per se, including reliving of the traumatic memory, avoidance symptoms, and emotional numbing, still requires further investigation. One of the core features of PTSD is that the traumatic memories are often reexperienced in the form of sensory flashbacks and are therefore not remembered but relived.78,79 To the best of our knowledge, no studies have investigated if the effects of propranolol extend beyond physiological effects, ie, altering the nature of how traumatic memories are recalled.