Furthermore, a double-blind randomized controlled trial compared

Furthermore, a double-blind randomized controlled trial compared the effects of propranolol, gabapentin, or placebo in individuals

admitted to a level 1 surgical trauma center. Propranolol was administered within 48 hours for a period of 14 days, including uptitration for 2 days at 60 mg daily, acute treatment 120 mg daily for 8 days, and tapering for 4 days.72 At 1- and 4-month follow-up, neither propranolol nor gabapentin led to superior outcomes in terms of PTSD and depressive symptoms. In the most recent randomized placebo-controlled studyexamining the effects of propranolol in 41 acutely traumatized individuals recruited from an ER, Hoge and colleagues73 demonstrated no significant effect of up to 240 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical mg/day of propranolol administered for 19 days on PTSD symptoms assessed at 1 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and 3 months post-trauma. However, in a subgroup of participants who exhibited high drug adherence, physiological reactivity during traumatic memory recall was significantlyreduced 5 weeks post-trauma in individuals who had received

propranolol as compared with placebo. Can propranolol change the course of PTSD when it targets reconsolidation of the traumatic memory? In patients with chronic PTSD, three open-label trials Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (n=28; n=7; n=32) have demonstrated that the inhibitor expert administration of propranolol combined with reactivation of the traumatic memory led to a reduction in PTSD symptom severity by 50% to 56% and a decline in the rate of PTSD diagnosis of 71% to 86%. 74 Similar results were reported by Menzies in a study of 36 chronic PTSD cases75 and an open-label trial by Pound j a and colleagues.76 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical However, placebo-controlled randomized control trials will need to confirm these results. Additionally, Brunet and colleagues77 examined physiological responses in individuals with chronic PTSD in response to administration of propranolol or placebo subsequent to traumatic memory reactivation. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Results demonstrated decreased physiological response to later traumatic memory recall with

propranolol but not placebo. A striking finding in these studies is that a single reactivation session was sufficient to induce reconsolidation in www.selleckchem.com/products/Y-27632.html memories that were 30 years old. In summary, even though data suggest that propranolol can reduce psychophysiological response associated with both recent and remote traumatic memories, its effect Batimastat in PTSD symptoms per se, including reliving of the traumatic memory, avoidance symptoms, and emotional numbing, still requires further investigation. One of the core features of PTSD is that the traumatic memories are often reexperienced in the form of sensory flashbacks and are therefore not remembered but relived.78,79 To the best of our knowledge, no studies have investigated if the effects of propranolol extend beyond physiological effects, ie, altering the nature of how traumatic memories are recalled.

However, these studies have been conducted in rats in whom the fr

However, these studies have been conducted in rats in whom the frontal cortex is poorly evolved, and given the marked activation produced in the kinase inhibitor Tipifarnib prefrontal cortex and amygdala by drug-associated stimuli in psychostimulant addicts, the conclusion that compulsive relapse is inhibitor bulk entirely derived from corticostriatal habit circuitry Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical may be an oversimplification. Indeed, it has been argued that a primary role for therapy in treating addiction is to strengthen prefrontal regulation of drug-seeking behaviors, whether through psychosocial interventions or pharmacotherapy.27,58,59 Enduring psychostimulant-induced

neuroplasticity in the prefrontal to accumbens glutamate projection Given the apparent critical role played by Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical glutamatergic afférents to the nucleus accumbens in initiating drugseeking or craving, recent studies have identified a number of enduring cellular changes in glutamate transmission that may be critical pathological neuroadaptations to psychostimulant use, and may serve as targets for pharmcotherapeutic intervention. In general the neuroplasticity can be categorized as postsynaptic, presynaptic and nonsynaptic (ie, residing predominantly in glia). However, since these processes are intimately related to each other, it is perhaps best to consider all the adaptations Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as changes in glutamate homeostasis,

the end result of which is a psychostimulant-induced enduring change in the fidelity of communication between the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens, and the regulation by this projection of corticostriatal habit circuitry. It has been Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical proposed that this loss of fidelity results

in a weakening or loss in the capacity of psychostimulant addicts to cognitively intervene in habitual behaviors, thereby making drug-seeking more difficult to control and increasing the vulnerability to relapse.27 As mentioned above, drug-seeking is associated with a large release Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of prefrontal glutamate into the nucleus accumbens. The large release of glutamate during drugseeking is all the more remarkable because it was discovered using microdialysis. which is not a very sensitive measure of glutamate Brefeldin_A transmission.60 Indeed, when animals are trained to seek a biological reward, such as food, microdialysis cannot measure glutamate release.49 Thus, the large psychostimulant-induced release of glutamate has been hypothesized to be a pathological and perhaps critical mediator of relapse. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that treatments interrupting synaptic glutamate release also inhibit drug-seeking. This includes a variety of pharmacological treatments that have the potential to be developed into pharmacotherapeutic agents, as outlined below.


Studies that also included Lapatinib buy hospitalized TBI patients reported similar frequencies of IB as the one we reported. For example in the CRASH Trial which was the largest trial conducted among TBI patients, 56% of the patients have some type of IB and 27% presented a subarachnoid haemorrhage which

is similar to the 22% incidence reported in this study. [4] In the IMPACT study, which included 9 randomised clinical trials in TBI patients, the range of frequency Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for EPH and SDH was 7-20% and 20-36% respectively, which is similar to the frequency reported in our study. [16] Our results are consistent, but more precise, than those of previous studies showing that IB is associated with increased mortality. There has not been any systematic review describing the association between Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical size of IB and prognosis in TBI but a comprehensive review has been reported in the overnight delivery guideline for the Surgical Management of Traumatic Brain Injury”. [17] In this guideline bleeding size is taken

into account to recommend surgical evacuation. However, the evidence presented in the guideline is very limited. For EDH the guideline reported only seven studies that evaluated the effect of size on outcome. The median of patients included was 74 (range: 22-200). In relation to SDH only seven studies reported on the effect of size with a median number of patients of 91 (range 23-206). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical For IPH seven studies were reported, with a median of 85 patients included (range Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 23-321). Furthermore in only a few studies mortality or disability were considered as outcomes and, many of the studies included selected samples (e.g. only surgical patients) and were retrospective analysis of one centre database. Our findings are also in

keeping with the results of previous publications showing that SDH is associated with a much larger increased in the probability Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of death than EDH. [17] We found that only large IB, wherever the location (EDH, SDH or IPH) are associated with worse outcome and that large IB are associated with an increased risk of death in comparison with small IB. Further studies should also evaluate the effect of size on disability using outcomes such as the Glasgow Outcome Scale. The strength Entinostat of our analysis is that it included more than 13,000 patients with traumatic brain injury and so the precision of our estimates of the risk associated with IB is high. We also adjusted for most of the relevant potential confounding variables. An important limitation of this study is that in a large proportion of patients it was not reported whether the IB was small or large. These patients, with size coded as NFS, presented intermediate risk between patients with small and large lesions. Another limitation is that we did not have information on pupil reactivity which has been shown to be an important prognostic factor.

Our data is constituent with the previous study by Carson et al

Our data is constituent with the previous study by Carson et al.22) They concluded that clinically apparent PE was an uncommon cause of death and most deaths were due to underlying diseases like cancer, heart failure or chronic lung disease. Limitations This is an observational study with analysis of relatively small numbers of stored digital images. Bias may

have been introduced from patient selection. Analysis may have been affected by image quality. Second, we assessed RV systolic function by RVFAC in the differentiation of RV systolic dysfunction. Other more accurate and objective imaging modalities, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or RV angiography, would have increased this study’s reliability. Unfortunately, patients with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical acute PE usually needed intensive therapy and were not suitable for these imaging studies in their presentation. A prospective study with a larger number of patients and using different echocardiographic machines at the same time will be needed to confirm the correlations and the clinical impact of this measurement. Conclusion TAPSE and TASV showed

significant correlations with conventional echocardiographic parameters of RV function and LogBNP value. These values can be used Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to detect RV systolic dysfunction more easily in patients with acute PE.
REFER TO THE PAGE 174-180 Recently, dynamic left Palbociclib Phase 3 ventricular dyssynchrony (LVD) using exercise echocardiography (ExE) become a promising method in many cardiovascular disease, because it can Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical unveil the pathophysiology, can predict the prognosis and also would be a possible

surrogate marker in the treatment monitoring.1),2) Especially in the field of cardiac resynchronization therapy, it would be a useful tool for patient selection, the prediction of response and optimization Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical method during exercise.3) Although dynamic LVD can be measured by Y-27632 buy simply manipulating loading condition using sublingual nitroglycerine and leg-raising maneuver,4),5) ExE can be provide more additional information about myocardial ischemia, diastolic function, pulmonary hypertension and exercise capacity. The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and concentric remodeling is related to GSK-3 the prognosis of hypertensive patients. However, there were few report about the relationship of LVH and dynamic LVD. Seo et al.6) reported that systolic LVD during exercise is significantly associated with the degree of LVH in hypertensive patients. Although dyssynchrony was impaired in both LVH and non-LVH group at resting, exercise could differentiate these. Systolic and diastolic dyssynchrony were exaggerated more in LVH group compared to non-LVH one. And, as we expected, the presence of LVH could limit the exercise duration even adjusting for age, sex and diastolic dysfunction. It means ExE can provide a valuable suggestion between the pathophysiology of hypertensive LVH and exertional dyspnea.

(In physics, a related “dual-aspect” strategy – concurrent accept

(In physics, a related “dual-aspect” strategy – concurrent acceptance of “wave” and “particle” descriptions of electromagnetic radiation – is needed to make sense of available data). In the present view, the affective states generated by primordial brain emotional networks may have been among the first experiences that existed in brain evolution. Without them, higher consciousness (frontal neocortical executive functions) may not have evolved.22 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical In evolutionary terms, all primal emotional systems are rooted

in yet deeper and more ancient processes. For example, the psychological pain of separation-distress/GRIEF may have arisen from earlier physical pain systems of the brain.23 The primary-process emotional-affective networks of mammalian brains Brain research

supports the existence of at least seven primary-process (basic) emotional systems – SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, GRIEF (formerly PANIC), and PLAY – concentrated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in ancient subcortical regions of all mammalian brains. In sum, affective neuroscientific analysis of basic emotions is based on several highly replicable facts: (i) Coherent emotional-instinctual behaviors can be aroused by electrically stimulating very specific subcortical regions of the brain; (ii) Wherever one evokes emotional Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical action patterns with ESB, there are accompanying affective experiences. Again, the gold standard for this assertion is the fact that the brain stimulations can serve Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as “rewards” when positive-emotions are aroused – eg, SEEKING, LUST, CARE, and aspects of PLAY. When negative emotions are aroused – RAGE, FEAR, GRIEF – animals escape the stimulation; (iii) The above behavioral and affective changes are rarely, if ever, evoked from higher prefrontal neocortical

regions, suggesting that higher brain areas may not have the appropriate selleck products circuitry to generate affective experiences, although the neocortex can Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical clearly regulate (eg, inhibit) emotional arousals and, no doubt, prompt emotional feelings by dwelling on life problems. The emotional primes are summarized in several monographs, with another appearing soon.24 Thumbnail descriptions are provided below, with one key reference AV-951 for each. The SEEKING/desire system This extensive network confluent with the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) is traditionally called the “brain reward system.” In fact, this is a general-purpose appetitive motivational system that is essential for animals to acquire all resource needs for survival, and it probably helps most other emotional systems to operate several effectively. It is a major source of life “energy”, sometimes called “libido.” In pure form, it provokes intense and enthusiastic exploration and appetitive anticipatory excitement/learning.

6% suicide The mortality rate, noted as being within 3-months of

6% suicide. The mortality rate, noted as being within 3-months of injury, was 4%. No other indices of severity, length of stay or injury information were presented. Single centre studies Five single centre studies were identified, with the patient sample size ranging from 5436 [34] to 13 008 Trichostatin A CAS patients [32] with all being three or more years in duration (Table ​(Table5).5). Only one study was prospective in design [31], with four being www.selleckchem.com/products/pacritinib-sb1518.html retrospective reviews. All reported mechanism Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of injury although categories varied (Table ​(Table7),7), all but one [32] reported age data, and one study failed to note the sex distribution of the sample [32]. With respect to the

key outcome indicators, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical none of the studies reported length of stay, head injury or GCS, RTS, TRISS, financial costs, or pre-hospital care; in addition, none reported patient occupation, or location. Transport was the leading cause of injury in all but one study where cutting/piercing (41%)

was the leading injury mechanism [34] (Table ​(Table77). Li et al [31] set out to examine violence as an injury mechanism, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and in doing so collected data in a prospective manner on 11 472 patients in a 3 year period using a purpose designed survey. Mechanism of injury, age, and the sex distribution was described (M:F 2.6:1), however there was no data concerning key injury severity and outcome indicators. The leading mechanisms were traffic (38.4%), suicide (15.9%) and assault (12.8%). Young adults (20-39) accounted for 56% of all patients. Four age categories were used, permitting only a limited understanding of injuries experienced by young children and older adults. The retrospective study of 13 008 patients at one hospital in Hangzhou reported Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by Qu et al [32] used the emergency department registry log as the basis for analysis, and reported only mechanism and mortality statistics (1.3%). In contrast to all other studies in this Review, three-quarters

of the patients presented Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical due to injury sustained in a transport-related crash, followed by machinery (9.6%) and falls (8.5%). Aside from these details noted above, the study presented limited patient characteristics, injury event, clinical indices and outcome variables (Table ​(Table55). In a 5 year study published Anacetrapib in 2006 [33], Zhou et al reported on the characteristics of 10 654 patients presenting the emergency department. Of these, 361 died (3.4%) prior to admission to the ED and 568 (5.3%) either refused treatment or were transferred to other hospitals. This was the only study to report pre-hospital deaths however mortality of those ‘admitted’ to the ED was not reported. The age distribution was divided into 10-year intervals, with those aged 20-30 years accounting for 33% of all presentations although the age distribution was capped at 51+ years, the lowest of any of the studies here (Table ​(Table5).5).

4,7 Secondary insomnia can result from medical,


4,7 Secondary insomnia can result from medical,

neurological, environmental, drugs, or psychiatric causes. Medical causes include pain, thyroid disease, acid reflux, coronary artery disease, pulmonary disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, sleep apnea, central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome), chronic renal insufficiency, eating disorders, thyroid dysfunction, fibromyalgia, menstrual-associated sleep disorder, and pregnancy.34-36 Neurological causes of insomnia Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical include headaches, Parkinson’s disease, and sleep-related movement disorders (nocturnal myoclonus, RLS). Environmental sleep disorders can be triggered by excessive noise, noxious odors, bright light, or extremes of ambient temperature. Alcohol-, hypnotic-, and stimulant-dependent sleep disorders also contribute to chronic insomnia. Psychiatric disorders are characterized by sleep-onset difficulties, frequent arousals, sleep fragmentation, shortened total sleep

time, and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical decreased sleep efficiency. These disorders include alcoholism, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, panic disorders, and psychoses. Preliminary data indicate that chronic insomnia may precede depressive episodes by several years, and the question of systematic treatment of chronic insomnia as a means of avoiding depression is being studied. Stressful life events can precipitate chronic insomnia in predisposed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical individuals with neurotic depression, rumination, chronic anxiety, inhibition of emotions, and inability to express anger.36 PSG in anxiety disorders Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical shows increased sleep www.selleckchem.com/products/crenolanib-cp-868596.html latency, decreased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and reduced sleep efficiency, while PSG in mood disorders demonstrates frequent arousals and awakenings, decreased slow-wave sleep (SWS), decreased REM latency, increased first REM period duration, and increased REM density.34 Insomnia assessment tools can utilize self-reporting methods (sleep diary and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objective methods include Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical actigraphy and PSG.26,37 Treatment for insomnia can

be categorized into pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments. Pharmacological strategies must achieve a balance between hypnotic and adverse effects. Hypnotics are indicated in psychophysiological insomnia for Cilengitide occasional intermittent use or short-term (2 weeks) administration. Benzodiazepine usage can result in impaired sleep quality, residual sedation, memory or functional impairment the day following drug administration, or rebound insomnia. Other they problems may include increased rates of falls, drowsiness, dizziness, cognitive impairment, and automobile accidents.35,38-40 Nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics, type I selective γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agents, such as Zolpidem (ti/2=2.4 h), zopiclone (tia=5 h), and zaleplon (ti/2=l h), have hypnoscdative action similar to the benzodiazepines and interact preferentially with δ1 receptors.

Virosomes containing surface HIV-1 gp41-derived P1 lipid conjugat

Virosomes containing surface HIV-1 gp41-derived P1 lipid conjugated peptides (MYM-V101) as prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine were prepared. MYM-V101 was safe and well tolerated when administered by intramuscular and

intranasal routes in healthy women. P1-specific serum IgGs and IgAs were detected in all recipients but P1-specific TH1 responses were not found [Leroux-Roels order AEB071 et al. 2013]. Currently, several clinical trials with virosome vaccines are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (see ClinicalTrials.gov, search terms virosome AND vaccine). Conclusion The enormous versatility of liposomes and the related archaeosomes and virosomes endows them as highly valuable carrier systems for vaccines. Besides improving antigen stability and presentation to immunocompetent cells, depending on their specific properties including composition, size and surface properties, these nanocarriers also possess the ability to overcome biological barriers, such as skin and mucosa, and provide controlled and slow release of antigens. Together with the ability to induce strong immune responses provided by coformulated adjuvants, liposome-based vaccines provide properties that are fundamental for the development of modern vaccine formulations. It is predictable that these delivery systems will be increasingly applied in the near future with success, leading to major improvements in

vaccine development. Footnotes Funding: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Conflict of interest statement: The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.

Tobacco use represents one of the most important public health problems

worldwide. Tobacco endemic is a leading cause of death, illness and impoverishment, resulting in nearly six million fatalities annually. Over 90% of these deaths are caused directly by tobacco use whilst about 10% are the results of non-smokers being exposed to second-hand smoke [1]. If current trends are not changed, these figures are expected to increase to more than 8 million deaths per year by 2030 [1,2]. Nearly 80% of the more than one billion smokers worldwide, a percentage projected to rise [3], live in low and middle income countries where the burden of tobacco related illness and death is substantial. Premature deaths which may be caused by tobacco use deprive Brefeldin_A families of those who died of income, raise the cost of health care and hinder economic development [1]. Additionally, tobacco smoking is a prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular and respiratory disease such as coronary heart disease, lung cancer and tuberculosis [1,3]. In a study that was conducted in Botswana, it was found that, 66.4% of patients that were diagnosed and treated for cancer in three referral hospitals were associated with tobacco use [4]. Moreover, tobacco use represents an important issue in occupational health because of its significant impact in the workplace [2].

So far there seems to be consensus on a diagnosis labelled PGD [1

So far there seems to be consensus on a diagnosis labelled PGD [1]. Left untreated CG has been shown to be associated with increased medicine consumption, problems with job retention, development of psychopathological disorders and increased mortality [6]; [1,7]. A recent longitudinal study using psychiatric interviews indicates that the prevalence Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of PGD or CG may be around 11% among bereaved individuals losing a close relative [8]. The focus of the present study is on complicated grief reactions and therefore, while keeping in mind the potential overlap

between CG and PTSD [4], CG was chosen above PTSD or other syndromes as the outcome measure of bereavement related distress in this study. Symptoms of CG have in numerous studies been assessed with the rating scale, Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG) [1,5,9]. Items on the ICG correspond closely to the symptoms in CG and the proposed diagnosis of PGD. According to the consensus diagnosis, PGD or CG cannot be diagnosed until six months Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical post loss. Accurately and early identifying persons at risk

of developing CG would be advantageous in providing appropriate support as well as evidence-based treatment in primary and palliative care [10,11]. A major challenge for clinicians consists in correctly identifying vulnerable individuals susceptible Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to develop CG among the group of bereaved individuals [12]. A number of risk factors have been identified, such as

attachment style, lack of social support and sudden loss [13,14]. Thus, there is a need for a clinical tool that can reliably assess the risk of developing CG in newly bereaved people. The aim of this study was to develop a clinical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tool to identify bereaved individuals to establish a prognosis of CG at six months post loss and to propose a model for a screening tool for early identification of bereaved individuals at risk of CG applicable in BML-275 general practice and palliative care. Methods Setting and procedure The study was approved by the regional ethics committee and the study population consisted of two samples. One sample Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was a longitudinal cohort with measurement at 2, 6, 13 and 18 months (T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively) post loss using a self-report questionnaire sent by mail. At T1 the questionnaire was administered through structured interviews at home visits to half of this sample. Postal questionnaires were used by all participants at T2-T4. This Batimastat sample was identified via the Danish Central Person Register (CPR) and consisted of all persons aged 65 – 80 in the former county of Aarhus, Denmark, who had lost a spouse during the year of 2006 [4]. The Danish CPR contains personal information regarding age, marital status, name of partner and place of residence. The second sample was recruited via the palliative home care team at Aarhus University selleck bio Hospital, Denmark.

Electronic noses can be used for this purpose If properly traine

Electronic noses can be used for this purpose. If properly trained, electronic noses can detect the presence of odours in ambient air, estimate odour concentration and attribute the perceived odour to a specific odour source [20]. During the last decade research activity aiming at the development of specific electronic noses for the continuous monitoring of environmental odours has been carried out at the Politecnico di Milano, in collaboration with Sacmi s.c. and Progress S.r.l.Since the first instrument developed mainly for laboratory use (EOS 835) [21], during the last years an innovative electronic nose was realized (EOS 507) [22], designed with the aim of guaranteeing better performance in the field under variable meteorological conditions and with diluted odours [23].This paper discusses the laboratory and field tests conducted in order to evaluate the performance of this new instrument. The performance evaluation in the laboratory was concerned specifically the verification of the ability to discriminate and correctly classify different specific odorous compounds (pure substances selected as representative of typical environmental odour emissions) and to estimate their odour concentration.The electronic nose performance was further verified by a field monitoring trial conducted in a rural area in the north of Italy where three odour emitting plants are present, with the aim of identifying the major source of annoyance. During the monitoring four electronic noses EOS 507 were used together with an ��old�� EOS 835 electronic nose, in order to compare the instrument performances and thus verify the effectiveness of the innovations and improvements introduced in the new EOS 507.2.?State of the ArtOne of the first Navitoclax Sigma studies published concerning the use of an electronic nose to monitor the presence of different odours in ambient air was performed by Misselbrook et al.[24]. In their work the authors compared the reliability of two different devices, Odourmapper (developed by UMIST) and Aromascan (Aromascan plc, Crewe, UK) in odour quantification. Sensor responses of both instruments to different samples with variable odour concentration had the same trend, but variances of the experimental data responses were not satisfying (62 and 59%, respectively). A better correlation between odour concentration and sensors responses was found by Stuetz et al.[6]. The first works on odour quantification performed by electronic noses showed that the algorithms used for odour concentration estimation and the investigated odour concentration range are crucial factors that can affect the analysis. Micone and Guy [25] obtained good reliability by using an electronic nose for analyzing odour samples with an odour concentration between 50 and 150 ouE/m3. However, the instrument accuracy turned out to worsen when the odour concentration increased.Another important factor to be considered is the influence of environmental conditions on sensor responses.