Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects are summarized in Table 1. We performed brain MRI in 32 patients who met the International Panel criteria for either MS or a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS),20 and 17 normal controls. Among patients with MRI and neurologic examination, we were also able to obtain cognitive testing in 24 within 2 weeks of MRI. All 17 normal controls underwent Maraviroc cost cognitive testing and MRI. MS patients were enrolled consecutively from a community-based, university-affiliated MS clinic. Controls were recruited by using an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved
advertisement that was posted in a local newspaper and our hospital website. Telephone interview was conducted by using a questionnaire. Control subjects did not differ demographically from the MS group [control mean ± standard deviation age = 45.5 ± 7
years, education = 16.5 ± 1.9 years (P= .74), 71% female (P= .79)]. Our IRB approved this study and informed consent was obtained on all subjects. Within 1 month of MRI, MS disease course21 and clinical measures including HIF cancer Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score22 and timed 25-foot walk (T25FW)23 (Table 1) were assigned by a treating neurologist. This study was part of a larger ongoing study in which patients are being recruited to assess the relationship between MRI findings and the development of sustained disability 3 years later. For this reason, patients were included only if they had “active click here disease.” This was defined as a clinical relapse, new or enlarging MRI-defined central nervous system lesion, or an increase in EDSS score of at least .5 in the year prior to recruitment. Only patients aged 18-55 years were included to minimize confounding
effects from age-related phenomena. To avoid confounding neuropsychological testing, we excluded any potential participants (both MS patients and controls) with a history of major medical, neurologic, or neuropsychiatric disorders or a history of substance abuse or motor/sensory deficits that may impact cognitive testing. Whole brain axial 2-dimensional fast FLAIR was performed in all subjects at 1.5T and 3T using the scan protocols shown in Table 2. The primary goal of this study was to determine correlation between 3T lesion burden and clinical measures rather than to directly compare 1.5T and 3T platforms. Attention was paid to achieving feasible scan time with optimized image quality on both platforms. Because of the potential at 3T to exceed specific absorption rate (SAR) patient safety limitations24 and scanning time considerations, repetition time (TR), echo time (TE), and echo train length varied between the 2 platforms, although voxel size was nearly equivalent. Image analysis was performed using the software package Jim (Version 3.0, Xinapse Systems Ltd.