Contact-angle measurements were used to validate the results from

Contact-angle measurements were used to validate the results from the rheometer. In situ noninvasive optical reflection was used to measure the longevity of the coatingtime-dependent loss of entrapped air within the coatingas a function of salinity. The superhydrophobic coating used herein consisted of PS fibers that were deposited using DC-biased AC-electrospinning. Electrospinning is scalable and far less expensive than conventional methods (e.g., microfabrication), bringing the technology closer to large-scale submerged bodies such as submarines and ships. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2011″
“The aim of this

article was to present an endodontically managed maxillary first molar with unusual C-shaped palatal root morphology

confirmed by cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) images. CBCT axial images showed the presence of C-shaped palatal root canal MK1775 anatomy with a palatal root bifurcation at the apical third. The evaluation of CBCT images can result in better understanding of root canal anatomy, which enables the clinician to investigate the root canal system and to clean, shape, and obturate it more effectively. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011;111:e41-e45)”
“The association between isolate genotype, defined as in the international spoligotype database SpolDB4, and extrapulmonary tuberculosis was determined among 1009 patients in a population-based, 4-year survey performed in Tuscany, Italy. Extrapulmonary disease occurred in 24.2% of patients. A statistically significant association with extrapulmonary disease was found for the BOVIS (adjusted OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.2-8.1) and for the Central Asian (CAS) lineages (adjusted OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.0-5.1). These findings support the view that Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains within individual genotypic lineages might have evolved unique pathogenic characteristics that are capable of influencing the clinical outcome of the infection.”
“Background: Erythrocyte-associated NVP-BSK805 antigenic polymorphisms or their absence have perhaps evolved in the human population to protect against malarial

infection. Studies in various populations consistently demonstrate that blood group ‘O’ confers resistance against severe falciparum infection. In India, Odisha state has one of the highest incidences of Plasmodium falciparum infection and contributes to the highest number of deaths by falciparum malaria. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between ABO blood group and severe malaria in an adult population at the tertiary care centre in Odisha.

Methods: A total of 353 P. falciparum infected subjects and 174 healthy controls were screened for ABO blood group. Falciparum-infected individuals were categorized as severe malaria and uncomplicated malaria. Severe malaria was further clinically phenotyped into cerebral malaria, non-cerebral severe malaria and multi-organ dysfunction.

Thresholds were determined before and after opening of the cochle

Thresholds were determined before and after opening of the cochlea, with a limited portion of the electrode array inserted, and after full insertion.

Results: Monitoring of the hearing state using CMs was quick, reliable, and capable of detecting an intracochlear trauma. In a first series of patients, thresholds were preserved in all patients after opening of the cochlea. Thresholds were preserved in 5 of 6 patients after limited insertion and half of the patients after full insertion of the electrode array. Despite threshold preservation until the end of surgery, the residual

hearing was lost in patients with deep insertions 1 week postoperative.

Conclusion: Intraoperative monitoring of CM thresholds may be valuable for identifying the exact point of time at which residual hearing is affected in CI patients. Opening of

the cochlea itself seems to be Stattic chemical structure unrelated to hearing loss. A significant proportion of patients check details may have hearing loss caused by secondary effects rather than a direct trauma.”
“In patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, myocardial fibrosis is an independent predictor of an adverse outcome. A new technique of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) surgical correction in patients with severe hypertrophy and septal myocardial fibrosis has been proposed. This approach avoids mechanical damage to the heart conduction system, and for the surgeon it improves visual inspection of the area to be resected. We present a case report of a 33-year old female patient with biventricular obstruction, extreme hypertrophy, septal myocardial fibrosis and episodes of ventricular tachycardia who underwent surgical correction according to this novel procedure. The advantage of the approach is an effective surgical treatment of HOCM in patients with severe hypertrophy and septal myocardial fibrosis who cannot be treated with the LY3023414 current surgical techniques.”
“The patient is a 54-year-old man with severe thermal burn injury involving 45.5% of the total body-surface area, complicated with bacteremia caused by Pseudomonas

aeruginosa with a cefepime MIC of 8 A mu g/ml. The plasma concentrations of cefepime 1 g every 6 h measured by validated high performance liquid chromatography were 25.8 A mu g/ml at 1 h and 6.28 A mu g/ml at 5 h after infusion, and 3.9 A mu g/ml before the infusion, when creatinine clearance was increased to 136 ml/min by vigorous fluid replacement. The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses in the one-compartment model with use of the Sawchuk-Zaske method revealed marked increase in the volume of distribution (28.9 l), total clearance (10.7 l/h), and shortening of plasma half- life (1.79 h) of cefepime, with time > MIC and 24-h area under the concentration-time-curve being 58% and 358, respectively. These pharmacokinetic parameters of cefepime quantified in the patient estimated a time > MIC of 87% if administered every 4 h. P.

Furthermore, we demonstrated that the HT-29 cell growth inhibitor

Furthermore, we demonstrated that the HT-29 cell growth inhibitory activity of EESP was due to apoptosis, as Ferroptosis inhibitor EESP treatment resulted in the loss of plasma membrane asymmetry (externalization of phosphatidylserine), collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3,

and increase in the ratio of pro-apoptotic Bax to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Taken together, these results suggest that Spica Prunellae inhibits the growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells through mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis, which may, in part, explain its anti-cancer activity.”
“Inorganic nanoparticles such as calcium carbonate, silica, or hydrotalcite were dispersed in vinyl chloride prior to suspension polymerization. That led to the production of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) composite grains with higher porosity and different internal morphology from those of commercial PVC. The PVC/composite grain sizes and their distribution were also

influenced by the presence of nanofillers. The distribution of filler nanoparticles (either calcium carbonate or silica) was not uniform throughout the PVC grains. Regions of high and low filler concentration were observed. Regions of pure polymer were also observed. Reasons for that are suggested. Hydrotalcite did not remain in the PVC grains. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Background: Cocaine abuse among women of child-bearing years is a significant Daporinad research buy public health problem. This study evaluated the efficacy of contingency management (CM), the community reinforcement approach (CRA), and twelve-step facilitation (TSF) for cocaine-dependent pregnant women or women with young children.

Methods: Using a 2 x 2 study design, 145 cocaine dependent women were randomized to 24 weeks of CRA or TSF and to monetary vouchers provided contingent on cocaine-negative urine tests (CM) or non-contingently but yoked in value (voucher control, VC). Primary outcome measures included the longest consecutive

period of selleck inhibitor documented abstinence, proportion of cocaine-negative urine tests (obtained twice-weekly), and percent days using cocaine (PDC) during treatment. Documented cocaine abstinence at baseline and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months following randomization was a secondary outcome.

Findings: CM was associated with significantly greater duration of cocaine abstinence (p < .01), higher proportion of cocaine-negative urine tests (p < 0.01), and higher proportion of documented abstinence across the 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-month assessments (p < 0.05), compared to VC. The differences between CRA and TSF were not significant for any of these measures (all p values >= 0.75). PDC decreased significantly from baseline during treatment in all four groups (p < 0.001) but did not differ significantly between CM and VC (p = 0.10) or between TSF and CRA (p = 0.23).

At the necropsy study of the lungs, 11 cases (28%) of clinically

At the necropsy study of the lungs, 11 cases (28%) of clinically diagnosed HMD were associated to meconium aspiration, pneumonia, or pulmonary hemorrhage; 12 (30%) cases were pneumonia and/or meconium aspiration and pulmonary hemorrhage without hyaline membranes. Of the 17 pneumonias, 15 (88%) were associated to histological chorioamnionitis,

RR 3.76 (95%CI: 1.9-4.2) (p < 0.001).

Conclusions. The clinical diagnosis of HMD needs a cautious interpretation, as it may be mistaken, or HMD may occur in association with other pathological situations enhancing a more ominous prognosis.”
“Physical stimulation of body surface points is known to Selleck AR-13324 affect various organ functions. In traditional Chinese medicine, so-called acupoints were defined. These points can be physically stimulated to effectively treat various diseases. Here we describe for the first time the effect of CO2 laser stimulation at the acupoints Neiguan (PC-6), Quchi (LI-11),

Zusanli (ST-36), and Taichong A769662 (LR-3) on heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure in anesthetized rats. CO2 laser stimulation increased the skin surface temperature to 54A degrees C. Our results revealed that the laser stimulation at the left or right PC-6 and LR-3 increased heart rate and mean arterial pressure. There was no response of heart rate and mean arterial pressure during and after stimulation of the left LI-11, but laser stimulation at the right LI-11 slightly increased heart rate and mean arterial pressure. On the other hand, laser stimulation at the left and right ST-36 decreased heart rate and mean arterial pressure. The effects on mean arterial pressure were more pronounced than those on heart rate. After full spinal cord transection, all heart-rate and mean-arterial-pressure responses were attenuated or completely abolished. These results suggest that CO2 laser stimulation at either the

left or right PC-6, ST-36, and LR-3, as well as at the right LI-11 can modulate the cardiovascular functions in anesthetized rats, and its modulatory site might be supraspinal.”
“Primary parapharyngeal space tumors are rare presentation in the head, face, neck region. Most of these tumors are benign in nature and significantly this website cast a challenge in terms of diagnosis and their surgical management. Anatomical location of these tumors, either prestyloid or poststyloid, size of the tumor, and proximity to the vital structures determine the appropriate surgical approach. The surgical approach to the parapharyngeal tumors should provide adequate visibility and access for complete removal, preserving the adjacent vital structures and also preventing recurrence. We report our experience in diagnostic workup and management of a series of 18 primary parapharyngeal space tumors with long-term follow-up.”
“Bariatric surgery is the most effective obesity treatment in terms of weight loss and resolution of comorbidities.

After VBS, a significant improvement was seen in vertebral

After VBS, a significant improvement was seen in vertebral

see more height, compared to conventional vertebroplasty. The mean improvement in segmental kyphosis and vertebral kyphosis were 5.8A degrees (p < 0.05) and 3.5A degrees (p < 0.05), respectively. In the VBS group, the mean injected volume of cement per vertebral body was 7.33 cm(3) (3.34-10.19 cm(3)). The average amount of cement outside the vertebrae was 0.28 cm(3) (0.01-1.64 cm(3)), which was 1.36 % of the applied total cement volume. In the vertebroplasty group, the applied mean volume of the cement per level was 2.7 cm(3) (1-5.8 cm(3)) and the average amount of cement outside the vertebrae was 0.15 cm(3) (0.01-1.8 cm(3)), which was 11.5 % (0.2-60 %) of the applied total volume of cement.

The frequency of cement leakage after VBS was 25.5 % compared to 42.1 % in the

vertebroplasty group. VBS led to a significant decrease in the leakage rate compared with conventional vertebroplasty.”
“Introduce and explore issues at an international conference about the use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in clinical practice.

Review of salient literature, clinical and personal experiences, conference presentations and discussions, and post-conference comments from outside experts.

PROs (information from patients about a health condition and its management) have been assessed through self-reports

Selleckchem SHP099 for at least four decades. Traditional Vorinostat applications are in clinical and health services research. Uses in clinical practice, although increasing, are less common and more challenging. PROs can enhance the understanding of patients’ experiences and responses to therapy and inform clinical practice.

We pose and discuss four main questions: (1) Will clinicians accept PRO measures? (2) Will clinicians use PRO measures? (3) Will measuring PROs actually improve those outcomes? (4) Will PROs be perceived as having other, less salutary purposes? A patient-centered perspective on PRO measurement presents issues about the extent to which PROs can accurately capture patient experiences and assess psychosocial and environmental factors that influence communication with clinicians and eventual outcomes. We end with comments about the intersection of PROs and bioethics, noting contributions that PROs may make to beneficence, patient autonomy, and distributive justice.”
“Purpose of review

To review the recent efficacy and safety data comparing methotrexate (MTX) and leflunomide (LEF) monotherapy, in combination with biologic therapies and in combination with each other.

Recent findings

MTX is the ‘anchor drug’ in all rheumatoid arthritis treatment strategies.

This was related to a flow rule developed for this material in a

This was related to a flow rule developed for this material in a previous study on compressive behavior. This flow rule is an adaptation of that of Hill, in which the anisotropy coefficients are power-law functions of the extension ratios. It is used in conjunction with

an Eyring process. The observed rate dependence of the tensile behavior conformed with that obtained with the power-law flow rule and could be used to derive a value of the power-law coefficient. Independent observations were made of the relationship between the axial and transverse strains in tensile specimens with inhomogeneous strain fields. A constitutive model was developed that incorporates the new flow rule and was implemented in a finite element analysis. When this analysis was used to model the inhomogeneous tensile specimens, it gave predictions of the axial and transverse strain that were consistent with the experiment when the power-law coefficient was the same value as that derived from the study of the rate dependence. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl selleck chemical Polym Sci 121:2936-2944, 2011″

Promotion of the HIV epidemic by aflatoxin is postulated but not yet established. Sub-Saharan populations commonly consume food contaminated by mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxins (predominantly found in peanut, maize, rice, and cassava) and fumonisins, which occur primarily in maize. Aflatoxin promotes hepatocellular cancer, and fumonisin may promote esophageal cancer.

Objectives: find more This analysis was undertaken

to test the hypotheses that consumption of mycotoxin-prone staple foods is 1) related to the incidence of HIV infection in Africa and 2) related to “”signature”" cancer rates confirming exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins.

Design: World Health Organization data for causes of death and the Food and Agriculture Organization per capita consumption data for commodities in sub-Saharan Africa were used. Per capita Gross Domestic Product and the percentage of Muslims (%Muslim) were the socioeconomic data sets exploited. Relations between causes of mortality, consumption of mycotoxin-prone foods, and socioeconomic variables were evaluated. Models for HIV transmission as a function of maize consumption and %Muslim were estimated.

Results: HIV and esophageal cancer deaths were significantly related to maize but were inversely related to %Muslim and rice consumption. HIV infections were minimized (74 compared with 435/100,000 people; odds ratio: 2.41; 95%CI: 1.73, 3.24; P <= 0.0001) by the combination of low maize consumption and above-median %Muslim. Hepatocellular cancer deaths were positively related to rice but negatively related to maize consumption.

Conclusions: HIV transmission frequency is positively associated with maize consumption in Africa.

An excisional specimen revealed an intradermal tumor with a dome-

An excisional specimen revealed an intradermal tumor with a dome-shaped profile formed by an intermixed proliferation of ganglion cells, Schwann cells, and numerous adipocytes. Schwann and ganglion cells

expressed S100 protein, S100A6, selleck kinase inhibitor and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Ganglion cells and axonal elements expressed c-kit, synaptophysin, neurofilament, CD56, and neuron-specific enolase. Rare small tumor cells with scant cytoplasm weakly expressed microphthalmia transcription factor protein (Mitf). Similar to NMN, CGN affected the same age group, commonly occurred on the trunk, showed neuromatous differentiation, and in a minority, exhibited adipocytic metaplasia. In contrast, CGNs were significantly larger tumors with more frequent coexisting epidermal changes or desmoplasia.

No cases of NMN had authentic ganglion cells, but a minority had ganglion-like cells, which weakly expressed the neural tissue markers c-kit, neuron-specific MEK inhibitor enolase, CD56, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. A few small Mitf+ cells were found in neuromatous areas and nevic corpuscles of NMN.

Conclusions: CGN and NMN are neural crest stem cell-derived tumors that exhibit overlapping and unique phenotypic traits. Adipocytic and neuromatous metaplasia in melanocytic nevi is considered as a consequence of “”maturation.”" Although transformation of an intradermal melanocytic nevus to CGN is a theoretical possibility, the multiple coexisting phenotypes they display most likely arose ab initio in the dermis, mirroring the multiple pathways of differentiation possible for neural crest stem cells.

The stage of differentiation of the precursor selleck screening library (stem) cell and interaction with environmental influences most likely predict the final phenotype(s), a pathogenic scheme that better explains the phenomenon of NMN rather than transformation of differentiated melanocyte into a peripheral nerve sheath cell.”
“Objective: To explore the role of a four-item Global Rating Scale (GRS) that could be used in place of the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II).

Study Design and Setting: A mixed four-factor design was used (User Type, Evaluation Type, Clinical Topic, Guideline). Participants were asked to read and evaluate a guideline using both the AGREE II draft and GRS or GRS only and to complete a series of questions regarding overall guideline quality, adoption, utility, and acceptability.

Results: One GRS item varied as a function of User Type. Each item was a significant predictor of participants’ outcome measures. All items were rated as useful by stakeholders. The GRS rating scores, outcome measures, and usefulness scores did not vary between the two Evaluation Type conditions. Correlations between the GRS and the outcome measures were stronger compared with those between the AGREE II draft and these measures.

Complications associated with PV/SMV reconstruction and harvestin

Complications associated with PV/SMV reconstruction and harvesting venous grafts and reconstructed PV/SMV patency during follow-up were assessed.

Of the 128 patients, 5 underwent total pancreatectomy, 99 pancreaticoduodenectomy, and 24 distal pancreatectomy. In the 14 patients who underwent PV/SMV reconstruction with grafts, the grafts were harvested from the external iliac vein (EIV) in 10 patients and internal jugular vein (IJV) in the other 4. Five patients (3.9 %) had an intraoperative or postoperative acute thrombus or stenosis of reconstructed PV/SMV after direct end-to-end anastomosis. However, PV/SMV patency was excellent after reconstruction

using grafts. There were no significant differences in other complications between groups with and without

the use of grafts. Three patients (30 %) with EIV grafts had postoperative leg edema, and one selleck chemicals of them required analgesics until his death because of leg pain caused by compartment syndrome, whereas no patients with IJV grafts had complications associated selleck kinase inhibitor with sacrificing veins.

Depending on the length and/or position of the removed PV/SMV segment, interposed graft may be required for reconstruction in some patients, and the use of graft vein, particularly using IJV, is an appropriate procedure that is not associated with any complications.”
“Background: Inflammatory, medium to severe acne vulgaris is treated with systemic antibiotics worldwide. The rationale Selleckchem BV-6 is an effect on Propionibacterium acnes as well

as the intrinsic anti-inflammatory properties of these antibiotics. Although there are no correlations between the number of P. acnes and the severity of the disease, associations between the degree of humoral and cellular immune-responses against P. acnes and the severity of acne have been reported. Exact data with respect to daily use of these compounds, such as differential effectiveness or side effects are unavailable. A summary of currently available studies is presented.

Methods: The data of studies of systemic antibiotic therapy of acne vulgaris up to 1975, the summary of literature in English up to 1999, a systematic review of minocycline of the year 2002 as well as the data of randomized controlled studies published and listed in Medline thereafter were reviewed. Results: Systemic tetracyclines [ tetracycline 1 000 mg/d, doxycycline 100 (-200) mg/d, minocycline 100 (-200) mg/d, lymecycline 300 (-600) mg] and erythromycin 1 000 mg/d are significantly more effective than placebo in the systemic treatment of inflammatory acne. The data for tetracycline are best grounded. Similarly effective is clindamycin. Cotrimoxazole and trimethoprim are likely to be effective. Definite differences between the tetracyclines or between tetracycline and erythromycin cannot be ascertained. The data for the combination with topical treatments (topical benzoyl peroxide (BPO) or retinoids) suggest synergistic effects. Therefore systemic antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy.


rates, and their corresponding confidence inte


rates, and their corresponding confidence intervals (95% CI), were calculated, as well as the impact on daily life. Multivariable logistic regressions in pregnancy and postpartum were estimated to assess the association of potential risk factors. Results The prevalence rate of double incontinence during pregnancy was 8.6% (95% GDC-0994 mouse CI: 7.010.3). Age over 35 years, and family history of UI were associated to a higher risk of double incontinence. After delivery, the prevalence rate decreased to 3.5% (95% CI: 2.44.6); only 6.7% of women with double incontinence in pregnancy had a persistency of their symptoms in early postpartum. Instrumental vaginal deliveries carried 2.2 times more risk of double incontinence than spontaneous ones. Episiotomy implied a higher risk for double incontinence. Conclusions Symptoms of double incontinence are

prevalent during first pregnancy; age and other intrinsic factors may favor the occurrence of double incontinence throughout gestation, while instrumental delivery and episiotomy increase the risk of double incontinence in the postpartum period. Neurourol. Urodynam. 31:12361241, 2012. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“We report the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis in three infants born to HIV infected women who had high anti-toxoplasma IgG and negative IgM during pregnancy. We briefly reviewed available literature and discussed the possible transmission mechanisms of congenital toxoplasmosis among BIBF1120 HIV infected pregnant women. Serum samples were tested for Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG antibodies using commercial enzyme immunoassay and IgG-avidity tests. In the first case, fetal death occurred at 28th week of gestation. In the second case, congenital toxoplasmosis was diagnosis at 6th month of life; and in the third case, an HIV-infected newborn, congenital toxoplasmosis was asymptomatic. These cases point out to the possibility of enhanced maternal-fetal

transmission of T. gondii infection by HIV-infected women chronically infected, which may have important public health consequences, considering that increasing frequency of HIV-infection has been observed among women of childbearing age around the Quisinostat world.”
“Aims Quality of life is an important outcome measure in studies of urinary incontinence. Electronic collection of data has several advantages. We examined the reliability of the Swedish version of the highly recommended condition-specific quality of life questionnaire International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire-Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life (ICIQ-LUTSqol), in paper and web-based formats in women with stress urinary incontinence. Methods Women aged 1870 years, with stress urinary incontinence at least once weekly, were recruited via the project’s website and answered the ICIQ-LUTSqol questionnaire. Respondents completed either the paper version twice (n?=?78), or paper and web-based versions once each (n?=?54).

Furthermore, five known phenolics were isolated and identified as

Furthermore, five known phenolics were isolated and identified as asebotin, quercetin 3,7-diglucoside, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. The structures of all the isolated compounds were established based

on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution-mass spectrometer. High-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra (HR-ESI-MS) were obtained using a JEOL JMS-T100TD spectrometer (JEOL Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). The anti-influenza A virus activity of the isolated new compound and asebotin was evaluated, and the obtained results revealed that the inhibition dose concentration of asebotin was more than that of Thalassodendrone with IC50=2.00 and 1.96 mu g/mL, respectively, and with cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 3.36 and 3.14 mu g/mL, respectively.”
“Eny2, the mammalian ortholog of yeast Sus1 and drosophila E(y)2, is a nuclear factor that participates in several steps of gene transcription and in mRNA export. We had previously found that Eny2 expression changes in mouse pancreatic islets during the metabolic adaptation to pregnancy. We therefore hypothesized that the protein contributes to the regulation of islet endocrine

cell function and tested this hypothesis in rat INS-1E insulinoma cells. Overexpression of Eny2 had no effect but siRNA-mediated knockdown of Eny2 resulted in markedly increased glucose and exendin-4-induced insulin

secretion from otherwise poorly glucose-responsive INS-1E cells. Insulin content, cellular viability, and the expression levels of several 3-MA price key components of glucose sensing remained unchanged; however glucose-dependent cellular metabolism was higher after Eny2 knockdown. Suppression of Eny2 enhanced the intracellular incretin signal downstream of cAMP. The use of specific cAMP analogues and pathway inhibitors primarily implicated the PKA and to a lesser extent the EPAC pathway. In summary, we identified a potential link between the nuclear protein Eny2 and insulin secretion. Suppression of Eny2 resulted in increased glucose and PLX4032 datasheet incretin-induced insulin release from a poorly glucose-responsive INS-1E subline. Whether these findings extend to other experimental conditions or to in vivo physiology needs to be determined in further studies.”
“Poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF)/Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposite was prepared by a simple coprecipitation method, and was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The SEM images showed that Fe3O4 nanoparticles were dispersed in the PVDF matrix as some aggregates with the sizes of 50 nm-2 mu m, and the XRD curves showed the incorporation of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles in PVDF matrices and the decrease of the crystallinity of the PVDF.