Consequently, the greater allopreening at roost sites on days when there had been an extended IGI in Afatinib molecular weight the morning is unlikely to be explained by lingering stress from the earlier conflict. One alternative possibility is that returning to the zone of conflict in the evening causes a secondary stress
increase, especially since conflicts reliably occur in the same areas. Previous work has indicated that merely being in a zone of conflict can affect intragroup behavior , but here we also found a difference in allopreening depending on the outcome of a conflict occurring many hours earlier. From a functional perspective, allopreening may strengthen social bonds and group cohesion  or may be traded in return for some other commodity [42 and 43], such as increased involvement in any future conflict. Green woodhoopoe roosts are crucial for both survival and reproduction [10 and 13]. If intergroup conflict affects the use of such limiting resources, Selleckchem FG 4592 as suggested by our work here,
then there are likely implications for individual fitness beyond the obvious consequences of injury or death resulting from aggressive interactions themselves [16 and 18]. Moreover, the increasing evidence that intergroup interactions affect intragroup behavior in a variety of species [7, 20 and 37], not only humans [6, 8 and 21], suggests broad evolutionary significance. Although it has long been suggested that conflict with rival groups is a key
selective driver for group dynamics and social structure [2 and 5], previous empirical work on behavior has generally focused on immediate, short-term responses ([6, 7 and 37], but see [9 and 22]). The current study, showing that there can be a lasting impact of individual conflicts beyond the immediate effect Amobarbital of elevated stress, combined with the possibility that the mere threat of future conflicts also has an influence , suggests a stronger mechanism for evolutionary change. Future studies on intergroup conflict will therefore continue to be important in developing our understanding of resource use, sociality, and the evolution of cooperation. A.N.R. conceived the research and collected the data. T.W.F. conducted the statistical analyses. A.N.R. and T.W.F. interpreted the data and cowrote the paper. This study complied with the laws of South Africa, where the data were collected, and was approved by the Science Faculty Animal Ethics Committee, University of Cape Town. We are grateful to Morné du Plessis for access to the study population he originally established and to Andrew Higginson, Christos Ioannou, and two anonymous referees for comments on the manuscript. The data were collected by A.N.R. while supported by a Natural Environment Research Council studentship. “
“Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer in the world.