Chromatin immunoprecipitation to detect histone


Chromatin immunoprecipitation to detect histone

modifications at the interleukin (IL) 10 promoter was performed on circulating mononuclear cells from a subgroup of patients.

Results: We enrolled 92 patients, and postoperative day 1 samples identified a subpopulation of immunocompetent patients at HDAC inhibitor low risk for infections with a specificity of 93% (confidence interval [CI], 83%-98%) and a negative predictive value of 88% (CI, 77%-95%; P = .006). Patients classified as immunoparalyzed had serum IL-10 levels 2.4-fold higher than the immunocompetent group (mean, 14.3 +/- 18.3 pg/mL vs 6.0 +/- 5.0 pg/mL; P = .01). In a subgroup of patients, we identified a greater percent of the “”gene on”" epigenetic signature, H3K4me3, associated with the IL-10

promoter after CPB.

Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that immunophenotyping patients after CPB can LB-100 solubility dmso predict their risk for the development of postoperative infections. Novel mechanistic data suggest that CPB affects epigenetic alterations in IL-10 gene regulation. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012; 143: 1160-6)”
“High-altitude hypoxia impedes cognitive performance. It is not well known whether the prophylactic use of acetazolamide for altitude sickness can influence cognitive performance at high altitude. When ascending to high altitude locations, one may face medical risks, including cognitive impairment, which may significantly hinder climbing abilities or exploratory behavior. Effective prophylactic drugs have rarely been reported. Because acetazolamide is commonly used to treat

acute mountain sickness CAMS), we assessed the potential effects of acetazolamide on cognitive performance during high-altitude exposure. Twenty-one volunteers aged 22-26 years were randomized to receive a 4-day treatment of acetazolamide (125 mg Bid, n = 11) or placebo (n = 10) before and after air travel from Xianyang (402 m) to Lhasa (3561 m). Neuropsychological performance was assessed using the digit symbol substitution test (DSST), paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), operation span task, and free recall test at 6, 30, and 54 h after arrival at Lhasa. The Lake Louise Score (LLS) was used to diagnose AMS. At high altitude, acetazolamide impaired rather than improved neuropsychological measures of concentration, cognitive processing speed, reaction time, short-term memory, Tau-protein kinase and working memory, which were assessed by DSST, PASAT, and operation span task at 6 and 30 h after arrival (p<0.05). However, the prophylactic use of acetazolamide was found to reduce the incidence of AMS compared to the placebo (p<0.05). In conclusion, acetazolamide impairs neuropsychological function, at least in part, shortly after the ascent to high altitude. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Clinical and neurobiological evidence suggests that concurrent presentation of schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive (schizo-OCD) symptoms represents a distinct clinical entity.

Twenty-one patients with confirmed CS (20 ACTH-dependent

Twenty-one patients with confirmed CS (20 ACTH-dependent BVD-523 datasheet and 1 ACTH-independent) were compared to 21 healthy control subjects. Identification of affective facial expressions (Facial Emotion Perception Test) was conducted in a 3 Tesla GE fMRI scanner using BOLD fMRI signal. The impact of disease (illness duration, current

hormone elevation and degree of disruption of circadian rhythm), performance, and comorbid conditions secondary to hypercortisolemia were evaluated. CS patients made more errors in categorizing facial expressions and had less activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, a region important in emotion processing. CS patients showed higher activation in frontal, medial, and subcortical regions relative to controls. Two regions of elevated activation in CS, left middle frontal and lateral posterior/pulvinar areas, were

positively correlated with accuracy in emotion identification in the CS group, reflecting compensatory recruitment. In addition, within the CS group, greater activation in left dorsal anterior cingulate was related to greater severity of hormone dysregulation. In conclusion, cortisol dysregulation in CS patients is associated with problems in accuracy of affective discrimination Staurosporine mw and altered activation of brain structures relevant to emotion perception, processing and regulation, similar to the performance decrements and brain regions shown to be dysfunctional in MDD.

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Anxiety and Depression’. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The aim

of the study was to investigate whether the protein and folic acid content of the maternal diet and the sex of the offspring alter the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of hepatic phospholipids and triacylglycerol (TAG). Pregnant rats were fed diets containing 18% or 9% protein with either 1 or 5 mg/kg folic acid. Maternal diet did not alter hepatic lipid composition in the adult offspring. Data from each maternal dietary group were combined and reanalysed. The proportion Urease of 18:0, 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 in liver phospholipids was higher in females than in males, while hepatic TAG composition did not differ between sexes. Delta 5 Desaturase expression was higher in females than in males. Neither Delta 5 nor Delta 6 desaturase expression was related to polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations. These results suggest that sex differences in liver phospholipid fatty acid composition may reflect primary differences in the specificity of phospholipid biosynthesis. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Eukaryotic mRNA initiates translation by cap-dependent scanning, ribosome shunting and cap-independent internal ribosome entry. Internal ribosome entry was first discovered for cytoplasmic RNA viruses but has also been identified for DNA viruses and cellular mRNAs.

Relative change in IS motion was expressed as percent change comp

Relative change in IS motion was expressed as percent change compared with initial presentation. Maximum IS extension (true lumen [TL] expansion) and contraction (TL compression), IS fraction in phase with aortic flow and correlation of IS motion with aortic flow (IS compliance) were quantified.

Results: IS motion

at initial presentation was 0.68 +/- 0.2 mm and was reduced at short-term (0.48 +/- 0.3 mm; P = .07) and midterm (0.5 +/- 0.2 mm; P = .1) follow-up. Trend in relative change of IS motion was variable during short-term follow-up: reduced in three subjects (-75% +/- 6%) and elevated in four subjects (48% +/- 23%). During midterm follow-up, relative change in IS motion was reduced GSI-IX mw in four subjects (28% +/- 19%) and slightly elevated in one (6.2%). IS contraction decreased with follow-up while IS extension slightly increased. Fraction of IS moving in phase with aortic flow increased but IS compliance decreased, Anti-infection inhibitor suggesting increasing

IS stiffness.

Conclusions: Reduction of IS motion in AD is seen with short-term and midterm follow-up. Intersubject variability of this trend is high at short-term follow-up but low at midterm follow-up. Detailed analysis of IS motion parameters indicate reduction of IS contraction and IS compliance with time. This has potential implications for endovascular management of type B aortic dissections, as expansion of aortic stent grafts can be limited by a stiff IS. (J Vasc Surg 2012;55:1419-26.)”

the measurement of fetal proteins in maternal serum is part of standard prenatal screening for aneuploidy and neural tube defects, attempts to better understand the extent of feto-maternal protein trafficking and its clinical and biological significance have been hindered by Thalidomide the presence of abundant maternal proteins. The objective of this study was to circumvent maternal protein interference by using a computational predictive approach for the development of a noninvasive, comprehensive, protein network analysis of the developing fetus in maternal whole blood. From a set of 157 previously identified fetal gene transcripts, 46 were classified into known protein networks, and 222 downstream proteins were predicted. Statistically significantly over-represented pathways were diverse and included T-cell biology, neurodevelopment and cancer biology. Western blot analyses validated the computational predictive model and confirmed the presence of specific downstream fetal proteins in the whole blood of pregnant women and their newborns, with absence or reduced detection of the protein in the maternal postpartum samples. This work demonstrates that extensive feto-maternal protein trafficking occurs during pregnancy, and can be predicted and verified to develop novel noninvasive biomarkers. This study raises important questions regarding the biological effects of fetal proteins on the pregnant woman.

c )] were evaluated in an open-field test and testing of the prep

c.)] were evaluated in an open-field test and testing of the prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reaction (PPI) 15 and 60 min after drug administration. The time disposition of mescaline 20 mg/kg s.c. in rat serum and brain homogenates was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Results Mescaline produced significant click here inhibitory effects on locomotion in low doses and a biphasic effect with the highest dose. In the PPI test, only when tested

60 min after drug administration, all doses of mescaline disrupted PPI. Besides the experimental protocol, we have observed that approximately 50% of animals receiving 100 mg/kg died within 12 h post-injection. The serum levels of mescaline rapidly increased within 30 min and subsequently quickly decreased; however, the brain concentrations reached a maximum 1 h after administration and remained high for an additional 60 min.

Conclusions Mescaline had a delayed onset of the main behavioral changes in rats compared to other hallucinogens. Behavioral changes correlated with the pharmacokinetics of the drug.”
“Purpose: Radiological imaging is the mainstay of

diagnosing ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Current established radiological modalities can potentially differentiate Crenigacestat price the varying degrees of obstruction but they are limited in functionality, applicability and/or comprehensiveness. Of particular concern is that some tests require radiation, which has long-term consequences, especially in children.

Materials and Methods: tuclazepam We investigated the novel use of Genhance (TM) 680 dynamic fluorescence imaging to assess ureteropelvic junction obstruction in 20 mice that underwent partial or complete unilateral ureteral obstruction. Ultrasound, mercaptoacetyltriglycine

renography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence imaging were performed.

Results: Our model of partial and complete obstruction could be distinguished by ultrasound, mercaptoacetyltriglycine renography and magnetic resonance imaging, and was confirmed by histological analysis. Using fluorescence imaging distinct vascular and urinary parameters were identified in the partial and complete obstruction groups compared to controls.

Conclusions: Fluorescence imaging is a feasible alternative radiological imaging modality to diagnose ureteropelvic junction obstruction. It provides continuous, detailed imaging without the risk of radiation exposure.”
“Multifunctional agents with limited motor resources must decide what actions will best ensure their survival. Moreover, given that in an unpredictable world things don’t always work out, considerable advantage is to be gained by learning from experience – instrumental behaviour that maximises reward and minimises punishment.

Results: Nineteen extracellular matrix and adhesion molecule-focu

Results: Nineteen extracellular matrix and adhesion molecule-focused genes demonstrated at least a threefold difference in expression between the 2 groups. Upregulation was observed in 16 genes, and 3 genes appeared to be downregulated. Notable imbalanced matrix metallopeptidase/tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase protein activities of saphenous vein exposed to end-stage renal disease conditions was found.

Conclusions: The results from present study suggest that the native extracellular matrix gene expression profile of the

saphenous vein conduits in hemodialysis patients show signs of the vein graft disease process before coronary surgery. Furthermore, some preoperative profiles of hemodialysis patients undergoing coronary artery

bypass grafting selleck inhibitor might provide some useful clues regarding vein graft quality and prompt adjustment in surgical strategy. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012;144:684-9)”
“Depressive symptoms in the community have a considerable impact on quality of life. Although long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) have frequently been implicated in depressed mood, their relationship with quality of life has scarcely been investigated.

This study examined the cross-sectional associations between fish consumption and plasma phospholipid LCPUFA status on the one hand, and quality of life, as measured by the Short Form 36 questionnaire, on the other in a population-based sample. Mdivi1 in vitro The mental health component of quality of life was not associated with LCPUFA status or fish consumption.

Fish consumption showed a positive association with physical well-being, which remained significant after correction for LCPUFA status, suggesting that the relationship between fish consumption and physical Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) well-being is independent of the LCPUFA content of fish. These findings indicate that fish consumption may serve as a proxy for a healthy lifestyle or a favorable nutritional status, which is reflected in better quality of life. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of minimally manipulative surgical strategies to harvest the saphenous vein for use in a Y-composite graft based on the left internal thoracic artery in terms of preservation of endothelial structure and function.

Methods: Twenty patients who underwent off-pump coronary revascularization using the saphenous vein in a Y-composite graft based on the left internal thoracic artery were studied. The saphenous vein was harvested from each patient with minimal manipulation. An excess saphenous vein segment was removed before dilatation (control group), and a second segment was removed after dilation performed using a pressure-sensing syringe (conventional group). A third segment was obtained from a Y-composite vein graft dilated by flow and pressure from the left internal thoracic artery (composite group).

We integrate evidence of glucocorticoid regulation of BDNF at mul

We integrate evidence of glucocorticoid regulation of BDNF at multiple levels, spanning from the well-documented glucocorticoid-induced changes in BDNF mRNA to studies examining alterations in BDNF receptor-mediated signaling. Further, we delineate potential lines of future investigation to address hitherto unexplored aspects of the

influence of glucocorticoids on BDNF. Finally, we discuss the current understanding of the contribution of BDNF to the modulation of structural and functional plasticity by glucocorticoids, in particular in the context EPZ5676 cell line of the hippocampus. Understanding the mechanistic crosstalk between glucocorticoids and BDNF holds promise for the identification of potential therapeutic targets for disorders

associated with the dysfunction of stress hormone pathways. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Steroid hormone actions in the CNS: the role of BDNF. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Fukutin-I is a member of a family of putative O-linked glycosyltransferases Rabusertib linked to the glycosylation of the dystrophin complex. Mutations in this family of proteins have been linked to a number of congenital muscular dystrophies that arise from the hypoglycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan. Critical to the function of Fukutin and other members of this family is their localisation within the cell, which has been shown to depend critically on the interactions between the N-terminal transmembrane domain of these proteins and the lipid bilayer within the ER/Golgi. To investigate how the interactions between the N-terminal transmembrane domain and the lipid bilayer regulate the localisation of Fukutin-I, we have developed an efficient PIK3C2G expression and purification protocol in Escherichia coil to allow biophysical studies to be performed. Expressing the N-terminal domain of Fukutin-1 fused to a His(6) tag resulted in the localisation of the protein to the bacterial membrane. A purification strategy has been developed to isolate

the highly hydrophobic transmembrane domain of Fukutin-1 from the membrane with yields of approximately 4 mg per litre of minimal media. Preliminary biophysical analyses have confirmed the identity of the peptide and revealed that in hydrophobic solvents mimicking the bilayer, the peptide adopts a well-structured alpha-helix as predicted from the sequence. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a secreted protein that has been linked to numerous aspects of plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS). Stress-induced remodeling of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala is coincident with changes in the levels of BDNF, which has been shown to act as a trophic factor facilitating the survival of existing and newly born neurons.

IE1-72, rather than IE2-86, was found to be responsible for p21 d

IE1-72, rather than IE2-86, was found to be responsible for p21 downregulation in HCMV-infected HEL cells. DNA transfection

analysis using IE1-72 mutants revealed that exon 2/3 and the zinc finger region of IE1-72 are essential for IE1-72′ s effect on the repression of p53-dependent transcriptional activation. These data suggest that HCMV IE1-72 and/or IE2-86 transactivates the p53 promoter and induces p53 accumulation, Blasticidin S concentration but HCMV IE1-72 represses the p53 transactivation activity by a unique binding hindrance mechanism different from that of IE2-86. Thus, various modes of viral IE proteins and p53 interactions might result in multiple outcomes, such as stimulation of cellular DNA synthesis, cell cycle progression and cell cycle arrest, and prevention of program cell death.”
“Eugenol is a phenylpropene obtained from the essential oils of plants such as clove and basil which has ample use in dentistry. Eugenol possesses analgesic effects that may be related to the inhibition of voltage-dependent Na(+) channels and/or to the activation of TRPV1 receptors or both. In the present study, electrophysiological parameters were taken from the compound action potentials of the isolated rat sciatic nerve and from neurons of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) impaled with sharp microelectrodes under current-clamp conditions. In the isolated

rat sciatic nerve, eugenol inhibited GDC-0068 solubility dmso the compound action potential in a concentration-dependent manner. Action potentials recorded from SCG neurons were inhibited by eugenol with an IC(50) of 0.31 mM. At high concentrations (2 mM), during brief applications. eugenol caused significant

action potential blockade while it did not interfere with the resting membrane potential or the membrane input resistance. Surprisingly, however, at low eugenol concentrations (0.6 mM), during long time applications, a reversible reduction (by about 50%) in the input membrane resistance was observed, suggesting the possible involvement of a secondary delayed effect of eugenol to reduce neuronal Lck excitability. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The type 1 interferon (IFN) cascade is critical in controlling viral replication and pathogenesis. Recognition pathways triggered by viral infection rapidly induce the type 1 IFN cascade, often in an IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3)-dependent fashion. This dependence predicts that loss of IRF-3 would render early recognition pathways inoperative and thereby impact virus replication, but this has not been observed previously with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. In this study, HSV-1-infected IRF-3(-/-) bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and macrophages supported increased HSV replication compared to control cells. In addition, IRF-3-deficient BMDCs exhibited delayed type 1 IFN synthesis compared to control cells.

In addition, Mab2-5G2 identified a soluble protein on MA-104 and

In addition, Mab2-5G2 identified a soluble protein on MA-104 and porcine alveolar macrophages. These results indicate that Mab2-5G2 may be a useful candidate as an alternative PRRSV serodiagnostic reagent and a useful probe to study PRRSV-cell interaction. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The activation of glial cells in the CNS has been suggested to be involved in abnormal pain sensation after peripheral nerve injury. Previous

studies demonstrated phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in spinal cord glial cells after peripheral selleck chemicals llc nerve injury, and such phosphorylation has been suggested to be involved in the development of neuropathic pain. The aim of this study was to examine the dorsal column nuclei for phosphorylation of p38 MAPK following peripheral nerve injury and to find more explore a possibility of its contribution to neuropathic pain. Immunohistochemical labeling for phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) MAPK was performed in histological sections of the rat spinal cord and medulla

oblongata after the fifth lumbar (1-5) spinal nerve ligation (SNL). The number of p-p38 MAPK-immunoreactive (IR) cells was significantly increased in the L5 dorsal horn and the gracile nucleus ipsilateral to the injury at days 3-21 after SNL. Double immunofluorescence

labeling with cell-specific markers revealed that p-p38 MAPK-IR cells co-expressed OX-42, suggesting their microglial identity. Increased immunofluorescence labeling for OX-42 indicated that microglial cells were activated by SNL in the L5 dorsal horn and the gracile nucleus ipsilateral to the injury. Continuous infusion of a p38 MAPK MTMR9 inhibitor into the cisterna magna for 14 days beginning on the day of SNL suppressed the development of tactile allodynia, but not thermal hyperalgesia induced by nerve injury. These results demonstrate that SNL activates p38 MAPK pathway in microglia in the gracile nucleus as well as in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Activation of p38 MAPK in medullary microglia may contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Both mu- and delta-opioid agonists selectively inhibit nociception but have little effect on other sensory modalities. Voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in the primary sensory neurons are important for the regulation of nociceptive transmission. In this study, we determined the effect of delta-opioid agonists on voltage-activated Ca2+ channel currents (I-Ca) in small-diameter rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons that do and do not bind isolectin B-4 (IB4).

In s

In click here the abaxial gap, intact cells separated at their middle lamella, but in the abscission zone, cell separation involved the entire wall, which is not typical. We did observe expected

mechanical fission of vascular tissues. While the leaf abscission process we observed in L. maackii has similarities with model systems, aspects deviate from the expected.”
“Specific targeted therapy for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), which has high disability and case-fatality rate, is currently not available. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from somatic cells of ICH patients have therapeutic potential for individualized cerebral protection. While, whether ICH patient-originated iPSCs could differentiate into neuro-epithelial-like stem (NES) cells and whether such NES cells could improve functional recovery in the hemorrhage-injured

brain are unclear. Here, we showed that fibroblasts from an ICH patient can be efficiently reprogrammed to iPSCs by lentiviral vectors carrying defined transcription factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC). These iPSCs have the typical morphology, surface antigens, capability of self-renewal and differentiating into cell types of all three embryonic germ layers that are similar to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Using defined serum-free neural differentiation medium, we induced the iPSCs differentiate into NES cells. Subsequently, the NES cells from ICH patient-originated iPSCs were transplanted into the perihematoma of rats with Benzatropine experimental ICH injury. Intriguingly, recovery of neurological LY2874455 solubility dmso dysfunction in experimental ICH rats was observed post-NES cells graftage. Transplanted NES cells

migrated to the surrounding area of hematoma, survived and differentiated into neuron-like cells. Our study demonstrates that the transplantation of human iPS-originated NES cells is an effective approach of treating ICH injury and the improvement of neural function is partially due to neuronal replacement and regeneration. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To investigate whether number of children and, among parents, having a daughter is associated with older people’s likelihood of at least weekly face-to-face social contact and later receipt of help if needed.

Multivariate analysis of data from Waves 1 and 2 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA).

Older parents in England had higher chances of at least weekly face-to-face social contact than their childless counterparts but larger family size had only a slight additional effect. For parents, having at least one daughter was more important than number of children. Larger family size was positively associated with receipt of help from a child by parents with activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) limitations.

In the present study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of

In the present study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the role of these elements in nuclear import in a comparison between several primary cell types, including stimulated lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. We show that despite the fact that none of these elements is absolutely required for nuclear import, disruption of the central selleck kinase inhibitor polypurine tract-central

termination sequence (cPPT-CTS) clearly affects the kinetics of viral DNA entry into the nucleus. This effect is independent of the cell cycle status of the target cells and is observed in cycling as well as in nondividing primary cells, suggesting that nuclear import of viral DNA may occur similarly under both conditions. Nonetheless, this study indicates that other components are utilized along with the cPPT-CTS for an efficient entry of viral DNA into the nucleus.”
“Nociceptive pathways with first-order neurons located in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) provide sensory innervation to the head, and are responsible buy Lazertinib for a

number of common chronic pain conditions, including migraines, temporomandibular disorders and trigeminal neuralgias. Many of those conditions are associated with inflammation. Yet, the mechanisms of chronic inflammatory pain remain poorly understood. Our previous studies show that the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is expressed by adult rat TG neurons, and released from cultured newborn rat TG neurons by electrical stimulation and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a well-established mediator of trigeminal inflammatory pain. These data suggest that BDNF plays a role in activity-dependent plasticity at first-order trigeminal synapses, including functional changes that take place in trigeminal nociceptive pathways during chronic inflammation. The present study was designed to determine the effects of peripheral inflammation, using tooth pulp inflammation as a model, on regulation of BDNF expression in TG neurons of juvenile rats and mice. Cavities were prepared in

right-side P-type ATPase maxillary first and second molars of 4-week-old animals, and left open to oral microflora. BDNF expression in right TG was compared with contralateral TG of the same animal, and with right TG of sham-operated controls, 7 and 28 days after cavity preparation. Our ELISA data indicate that I exposing the tooth pulp for 28 days, with confirmed inflammation, leads to a significant upregulation of BDNF in the TG ipsilateral to the affected teeth. Double-immunohistochemistry with antibodies against BDNF combined with one of nociceptor markers, CGRP or transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), revealed that BDNF is significantly upregulated in TRPV1-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in both rats and mice, and CGRP-IR neurons in mice, but not rats. Overall, the inflammation-induced upregulation of BDNF is stronger in mice compared to rats.