Here, we engineered a micropatterned

co-culture (iMPCC) p

Here, we engineered a micropatterned

co-culture (iMPCC) platform in a multi-well format that, in contrast to conventional confluent cultures, significantly enhanced the functional maturation and longevity of iHeps in culture for at least 4 weeks in vitro when benchmarked selleck chemicals against multiple donors of PHHs. In particular, iHeps were micropatterned onto collagen-coated domains of empirically optimized dimensions, surrounded by 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts, and then sandwiched with a thin layer of ECM gel (Matrigel™). We assessed iHep maturity via global gene expression profiles, hepatic polarity, secretion of albumin and urea, basal CYP450 activities, phase-II conjugation, drug-mediated CYP450 induction, and drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Conclusion: Controlling both homotypic interactions between iHeps and heterotypic interactions with stromal fibroblasts significantly

matures iHep functions and maintains them for several weeks in culture. In the future, iMPCCs could prove useful for drug screening, studying molecular mechanisms underlying iHep differentiation, modeling liver diseases, and integration into human-on-a-chip systems being designed to assess multi-organ responses to compounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. “
“It has been suggested that there could be three possible mechanisms of gastric dysfunction in patients with FD: (i) delayed gastric Selleckchem Romidepsin emptying, (ii) impaired gastric accommodation of food intake, and (iii) hypersensitivity to gastric distention. Postprandial fullness seems to be the most severe symptom in patients who report aggravation of their symptoms after meals. Therefore, see more it has been assumed that delayed gastric emptying and consequent prolonged antral distension could reduce hunger, increase satiety, and even cause gastric discomfort, all of which would pose a significant barrier to adequate nutrition. We previously reported that postprandial water intake inhibits gastric antral motility along with an increase of cholecystokinin (CCK) in normal subjects. We assumed that the rapid increase of CCK after water

intake was initiated by a feedback mechanism related to the inflow of fatty chyme into the duodenum that inhibits gastric antral activity. This duodeno-gastric interaction is known as the “duodenal break.” We also reported that total gastric emptying was more rapid after the intake of a high-viscosity liquid meal than after a low-viscosity meal, because the low-viscosity liquid meal inhibits gastric empting after rapid initial inflow into the duodenum. Considering these results, we hypothesized that rapid gastric emptying, rather than delayed gastric emptying, could be a cause of FD. In some patients with postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), we have found a significant correspondence between PDS-related dyspepsia and accelerated gastric emptying in the early postprandial period.

Factors independently associated with SVR included HCV genotype,

Factors independently associated with SVR included HCV genotype, younger age, female gender, low baseline viral load, lower APRI score, higher ribavirin dose, and treatment in the 2008-2011 period. Conclusions: Data from this large non-interventional cohort study demonstrate that treatment individualization became increasingly integrated in clinical practice and improved SVR rates in a more difficult to treat population. Figure 1, 2 Disclosures: Stefan Mauss – Advisory Committees or Review Panels: BMS, AbbVie, Janssen, Roche, Gilead; Speaking and Teaching: BMS, AbbVie, Janssen, Gilead Dietrich Hueppe – Advisory Committees or Review Panels: MSD, Gilead, Abbvie, BMS, Novartis,

Norgine Heike Pfeiffer-Vornkahl – Independent Contractor: Roche Ulrich Alshuth – Employment: Roche Eckart Schott – Advisory Committees or Review Panels: Gilead, Roche, Bayer, BMS; Speaking and Teaching: Gilead, Novartis, Roche, Kinase Inhibitor Library clinical trial MSD, Bayer, Falk,

BMS, Janssen The following people have nothing to disclose: Wolf P. Hofmann, Elmar Zehnter Background: Telaprevir-based combination mTOR inhibitor therapy for chronic hepatitis C patients is highly effective; however, the high prevalence of dermatological reactions is an outstanding issue. The mechanism and characteristics of such adverse reactions are unclear; in addition, predictive factors remain unknown. Granulysin was recently reported to be significantly upregu-lated in the blisters of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis. Therefore, we investigated

the risk factors for severe telaprevir-induced dermatological reactions as well as the association between serum granulysin levels and the severity of such dermatological reactions. Methods: A total of 89 patients who received telaprevir-based triple therapy during 2011–2013 and had complete clinical information were analyzed. We analyzed the associations among dermatological reactions, clinical factors, and treatment outcomes. Next, we investigated the time-dependent changes in serum granulysin levels in 5 and selleck kinase inhibitor 15 patients with grade 3 and non-grade 3 dermatological reactions, respectively. Results: Of the 89 patients, 64% (57/89) had dermatological reactions, including 9 patients with grade 3 reactions. Univariate analysis revealed that grade 3 dermatological reactions were significantly associated with male sex (P = 0.03). Moreover, grade 3 dermatological reactions were significantly associated with non-sustained virological response at 24 weeks (P = 0.005). Serum granulysin levels were significantly associated with the severity of dermatological reactions (P = 0.036). Three out of 5 patients with grade 3 dermatological reaction had severe systemic manifestations including SJS, drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, and systemic lymphoid swelling and high-grade fever (>39°C); all were hospitalized.

The patient received 4 weekly doses of rituximab (375 mg m−2 per

The patient received 4 weekly doses of rituximab (375 mg m−2 per dose) with resolution of the inhibitor (Table 2), but he declined cardiac surgery. Two years later, he discontinued use of danazol because of mood swings and FEIBA was restarted. Approximately 6 months later, he experienced recurrent

GI bleeding from jejunal AVMs and recurrence of angina. Persistent GI bleeding despite FEIBA prophylaxis and a negative FV inhibitor prompted an attempt at antiangiogenic therapy (thalidomide, 50 mg orally daily). For 4 months he experienced no major bleeding. However, constipation prompted transient discontinuation of thalidomide, with recurrence of GI bleeding that led to anaemia and a non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Thalidomide was restarted

after the myocardial infarction in early 2010. For 6 months he had two bleeds that required FEIBA and intensive transfusion of pRBCs, in addition to endoscopic argon Sirolimus plasma cauterization treatment achieving coagulation of the single visible jejunal vascular lesion. Thereafter, no bleeding occurred, despite tapering and completely discontinuing FEIBA, with no pRBC transfusion or FEIBA in the ensuing 1.5 years. The most recent jejunal bleeding in December 2011 was treated endoscopically, along with pRBCs and two units of FFP but no FEIBA. He is currently receiving thalidomide 50 mg day−1 and is under medical management and lifestyle modification given his severe coronary artery disease. Treatment of FV deficiency and inhibitors has two objectives: controlling acute haemorrhagic events while the inhibitor is present and attempting to eliminate the antibody. For GI bleeding, after initial stabilization, source control is more likely to resolve the bleeding than is exclusive haemostatic management [3]. This is illustrated in our case, in which endoscopic treatment and haemostatic management with bypassing agents and antifibrinolytics failed to decrease the frequency and severity of haemorrhagic episodes. For patients without coagulopathy and multiple vascular intestinal malformations who present with recurrent, intractable GI bleeding, varying

degrees of success have been achieved with hormonal treatment, somatostatin and antiangiogenic treatment [1, 4, 5]. In our patient’s case, hormonal treatment with danazol was transiently selleck compound successful at decreasing the frequency of bleeding, but medication compliance was poor. Coinciding with the results from the open-label trial by Ge et al. [6], who showed a 1-year response rate of 71.4% with thalidomide vs. 3.7% with placebo, antiangiogenic treatment with thalidomide has been most successful at combining adequate efficacy and tolerability of adverse effects in this case. Given the large volume of transfused FFP required to attempt immunotolerance induction with high-dose factor, this was not a viable option for inhibitor treatment in our patient [2].

7, 8 Although a comprehensive list of HIF targets would be well b

7, 8 Although a comprehensive list of HIF targets would be well beyond the scope of this article, several HIF targets that have been described in liver disease, as summarized in Table 1. Notably, the gene families represented include proinflammatory and profibrotic mediators, as well as genes involved in tumor progression.9-17 The physiological gradient of oxygen tension across the hepatic lobule has profound effects on the function of hepatic parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells. Periportal

hepatocytes LBH589 price and perivenous hepatocytes differ in their expression of many enzymes involved in glucose transport or metabolism, including insulin receptor, glucagon receptor, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1), L-type pyruvate kinase, and numerous others.18 Consequently, periportal hepatocytes tend to subspecialize in oxidative energy metabolism, glucose production, and synthesis of urea and bile, whereas perivenous hepatocytes are major sites of glucose uptake, glutamine formation, and xenobiotic metabolism.1 Physiological exposure of hepatocytes to varying levels of oxygen tension also

has consequences for the ability of hepatocytes to respond to hypoxic stress. Primary rat hepatocytes cultured in conditions approximating periportal oxygen tensions were able to survive transient anoxia with less cell death and cytokine release than hepatocytes cultured in conditions approximating perivenous oxygen selleck screening library tension. This suggests that in conditions of oxygen deprivation, A-769662 purchase such as increased hepatic metabolic demand, tissue ischemia, or other conditions, perivenous hepatocytes may be primed to increased injury when oxygen tension drops beneath a threshold level.19 Understanding and controlling ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury is a major goal of liver biology, particularly as IR injury often occurs in the context

of reperfusion of the transplanted liver and in emergencies with low arterial pressure. Through a variety of mechanisms, including the production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory mediators, IR injury can cause major morbidity, including predisposing to graft failure. HIF1α induction has been described as an early event, preceding apoptosis, in IR injury.20 Hepatic IR has been described to up-regulate the HIF target VEGF.21 Unsurprisingly, HIF1α tends to accumulate during ischemia, but HIF1α DNA binding has been shown to decrease during reperfusion.22 Some data suggest that HIF1α-dependent up-regulation of the transferrin gene contributes to reactive species formation and liver injury in reperfusion, likely through iron-dependent reactive species accumulation.23 A protective effect of HIF1α induction on ischemia-reperfusion injury has also been described in in vitro models.24 Consistent with those results, knockout or silencing of the HIF-degrading PHD1 gene recently has been shown to attenuate IR injury.

Nonetheless, the ablation strategies employed in our study (1) av

Nonetheless, the ablation strategies employed in our study (1) avoid common side effects described for DC ablation[26] due to our use of CD11c-DTR chimeric mice and 120G8 antibody, (2) address the role of both cDC and pDC, and (3) investigate the role of cDCs in

two common models of liver fibrosis. Our study contains several limitations. First, because we observed more than 1,400 HM-regulated genes, it is likely that genes besides NF-κB–regulated genes affect HSC responses. Further studies are required to unravel the relevance of NF-κB–independent genes and pathways regulated by HM. These may include additional mediators secreted from MK-2206 supplier HMs such as IL-6 and transforming growth factor β.[35, 42] Accordingly, our IPA analysis revealed Stat1/3/5 as an HM-activated pathway. Second, our studies were performed in mouse models, and further studies are required to determine whether HM-induced NF-κB activation plays a role in human fibrogenesis. As patients develop fibrosis slowly over decades, pathways that promote long-term myofibroblast survival may be particularly relevant. IL-1 and TNF inhibitors may be considered for antifibrotic therapies but may cause severe side effects. In conjunction with previous studies,[32, 43] our data support the concept that targeting the NF-κB pathway in HSCs and subsequent induction

of HSC apoptosis may be a more suitable antifibrogenic this website RG7420 chemical structure strategy. In conclusion, our study shows

that HMs provide a novel link between inflammation, HSC survival, and liver fibrosis and suggests that inflammatory signaling pathways may provide additional targets for antifibrotic therapies in the liver. Future studies are needed to determine whether macrophage-mediated promotion of myofibroblast survival also promotes fibrosis in other organs. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article. “
“Background and Aim:  Insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus (DM) are known to contribute to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the relationship between glucose metabolism and NAFLD is not well known. In this study, we investigated whether secretion patterns of glucose and insulin could influence the histological severity in NAFLD patients without prior known type 2 DM. Methods:  A 75-g glucose tolerance test was performed on 173 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients without prior known type 2 DM. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were analyzed periodically for 3 h after oral glucose loading. Results:  Of the 173 NAFLD patients, 168 had non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, whereas no patient had cirrhosis. Irrespective of the hemoglobin A1c levels, impaired glucose tolerance, including DM, was detected in 60% of the NAFLD patients.

The presence of circulating inhibitors is the result of a complex

The presence of circulating inhibitors is the result of a complex interaction between many immune partners providing positive or negative signals driving the production of such inhibitors [4]. Considering FVIII interactions with innate immunity, the question as to whether or not it might be possible to reduce FVIII immunogenicity by modifying its sequence and/or structure should be re-examined. Eliminating such interaction GSK-3 signaling pathway might be all that is required to prevent an adaptive response, and thereby the production of inhibitory antibodies. This is the matter of intense ongoing investigation.

One, but not least of the questions raised is to understand the molecular reasons as to why FVIII (and not FIX) interacts with innate immunity and, consequently, if eliminating this interaction would provide a viable way to reduce immunogenicity without affecting functional properties. Another issue which

learn more deserves attention is related to our capacity to prevent and/or suppress an adaptive immune response when it is already present, which is by definition the case when inhibitors are detected in a clinical setting. The recent development of methods by which an antigen-specific immune responses can be switched off by exposure to MHC-class II-restricted T-cell epitopes, modified to contain an oxido-reductase activity, likely provides a suitable treatment for patients with such inhibitors [5]. Switching off antigen-specific CD4 +  T lymphocytes prevents the formation of antibodies. Strikingly, FIX concentrates immunogenicity poses less difficulty, both in the clinic

and on experimental grounds. There are a number of reasons for this, including the much higher concentration of FIX in plasma as compared to FVIII, the size of the molecule and the fact that it does not or only marginally, activates the innate immune system. Interfering with a ‘mere’ adaptive response under such circumstances is conceptually much simpler. Current activities in the development of new clotting factor products focus on the extension of half-life and reduction of immunogenicity. A variety of potential new product candidates with molecular or chemical modifications are entering check details preclinical and clinical development. All chemical or molecular modifications bear the risk of creating neoepitopes for T cells or B cells and of creating structural alterations that stimulate innate immune cells. Consequently, such alterations could trigger the development of antibodies associated with unwanted clinical sequelae such as reduced efficacy, altered pharmacokinetics, hypersensitivity reactions or breakage of immune tolerance to the endogenous counterpart. Therefore, it is important to assess the potential immunogenicity risk of each modified protein before it enters clinical development.

0%, if the probability of local recurrence following


0%, if the probability of local recurrence following

initial complete ablation was <1.9%, if RFA could be performed for a recurrent HCC at least 70.2% of the time, if the median survival of patients with progressive HCC was >2.73 years, or if the R1 rate was >0.28% (Table 2). Other variables did not alter the preferred treatment option from HR. The analysis also demonstrated that group II was always superior to group III for overall survival and that group III was the preferred strategy over group I if the perioperative mortality rate was >3.8% or if the R1 rate was >4.2%. Two-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the overall survival of patients with a perioperative mortality rate of 1% for group I was the

same as that of patients with a local recurrence rate of 2.5% for group II, when other variables values remained constant at preset values (Fig. 3). The analysis also showed that a 3% increase in the local recurrence rate following RFA was equivalent to a 1% increase in the perioperative mortality rate following HR concerning the effect on overall survival. This finding was due to the fact that many of the local recurrent tumors could be successfully treated with repeated RFA. Tornado diagrams showed that the overall survival outcomes were most sensitive to the probability of remote intrahepatic recurrence or the repeatability of RFA for recurrent HCCs, which were not related to the initial treatment options Raf inhibitor (Supporting Fig. 2). In contrast, survival outcomes were less sensitive to variables related to initial treatment options such as perioperative mortality or local recurrence. The probability distributions of overall survival for the cohort in this study demonstrated that the expected overall survival for group I and group II were nearly identical, but were longer than that for group III (Fig. 4). The 95% confidence intervals were 7.18–7.96, see more 7.15–7.94, and 6.96–7.73 years for group I, group II, and group III, respectively. The 95% confidence intervals for the difference in overall

survival were −0.18–0.18 years between group I and II, 0.06–0.36 years between group I and III, and 0.13–0.30 years between group II and III. The difference between group I and II was insignificant (P = 0.309), but the difference between group I and III and between group II and III was statistically significant (P = 0.003 and P = 0.000, respectively) (Supporting Fig. 3). This apparent discrepancy occurred because the overall survival outcomes were more sensitive to variables not related to the initial treatment options. More importantly, this finding indicates that the preference for the treatment strategy between groups I/II and group III would not be affected by the uncertainties in the parameter estimations. Usually, RFA is inferior to HR in terms of local recurrence, which is known to be a significant adverse prognostic factor for survival.

23 Investigations employing a blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD)

23 Investigations employing a blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI technique yielded a wealth of information on the neuronal function in migraine, both in spontaneous and induced visual aura. The method reflects the balance between oxygen supply and oxygen consumption, therefore rendering a more accurate measurement of the rate at which the abnormality underlying

the visual field defect propagates while outlining the functional areas of visual cortex involved in the initiation and propagation of aura. A study by Hadjikhani and colleagues24 conducted in subjects with migraine during visual aura (either at the beginning of the attack or within 20 minutes after onset) revealed a slowly spreading signal disturbance with striking CSD characteristics, GPCR Compound Library cost including transient hyperperfusion followed by sustained hypoperfusion, time-locked to percept/onset of the aura. The investigators were fortunately able to find one subject who could trigger his attacks with exercise and brought him to imaging directly

after gym work, and another subject who worked in the lab and was thus available for immediate study. Initially, a focal increase in BOLD signal (possibly reflecting vasodilation) developed within extrastriate cortex (area V3A) (Fig. 1). This BOLD change progressed contiguously and slowly (3.5 ± 1.1 mm/minute) over the occipital cortex, congruent with the retinotopy of the visual percept. Following the same retinotopic progression, the BOLD signal then diminished (possibly reflecting vasoconstriction after the initial vasodilation), as did the BOLD response to visual activation (Fig. 2). During periods with no visual stimulation, but while a subject was experiencing scintillations, BOLD signal followed the retinotopic progression of the visual percept. These data, although not reproduced so far using functional MRI, suggest

learn more that an electrophysiological event, such as CSD, generates aura in the human visual cortex. Neurovascular changes were noted in imaging studies of patients suffering from familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM), a rare type of migraine characterized by an aura with motor involvement. Imaging FHM patients with prolonged symptoms (lasting 4 to 12 days) on days 1 to 4 most frequently evidenced hyperperfusion in the “predominantly affected hemisphere” contralateral to hemiplegia, although hypoperfusion was also noted.25,26 The “non-predominantly affected” hemisphere exhibited only hypoperfusion. in 2 patients with signs of acute ischemic stroke who turned out to suffer from FHM, Hansen and colleagues27 recorded the early phase of the hemiplegic aura using computed tomography with perfusion sequences and MRI.

Thus the present study was initiated to investigate whether miR-1

Thus the present study was initiated to investigate whether miR-152 are aberrantly regulated by the HCV core protein, and involved in the regulation of the aberrant proliferation of HCV-HCC cells. Methods: MiR-152 levels were examined by stem-loop real-time RT-PCR (SLqRT-PCR).

Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT and colony formation assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by propidium iodide staining. A luciferase reporter assay was conducted to confirm miRAN-target association. Wnt1 expression was determined by real-time qPCR and Western blotting. Results: HCV core protein significantly suppressed miR-152 expression, and led to significant Wnt1 up-regulation with a concomitant aberrantly promoted proliferation. Moreover, we validated that

Carfilzomib miR-152 inhibition promoted, while miR-152 mimics inhibited cell proliferation. Using a luciferase activity assay, FQ-PCR and RXDX-106 purchase western blot, Wnt1 was identified as a target of miR-152 in HepG2 cells. Most notably, salvage expression of miR-152 after AdHCV core infection into the HepG2 cells for 24h almost totally reversed the proliferation-promoting effect of the HCV core protein, and meanwhile, reduced the expression of both Wnt1 mRNA and protein to basal levels. Conclusion: These findings provide important evidence that the reduced miR-152 expression by HCV core protein over-expression can lose an inhibitory effect on Wnt1, which might, at least partially lead to cell proliferation of liver cancer cells. MiR-152 may have a therapeutic potential to suppress liver cancer proliferation. Keywords: miR152; Wnt1; cell proliferation; cell cycle; HCV core Disclosures: The following people have nothing to disclose: Huang S. Feng, Yan Xie, Yang Ping, Chen Pu, Zhang L. Ping MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionary conserved small noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Numerous studies have reported the key

role of miRNAs in development, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor biology. However, the implication of miRNAs in liver development is not fully understood. check details By using an experimental model developed by our group that allows the induced and controlled differentiation of mouse fetal hepatoblasts (MFHs) into mature hepatocytes, we identified miR-148a as a hepatospecific miRNA highly expressed in adult liver. The main finding of our study revealed that miR-148a was critical for hepatic differentiation via the direct targeting of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1, a major enzyme responsible for epigenetic silencing, thereby allowing the promotion of the “adult liver” phenotype. It was also confirmed that the reduction of DNMT1 by RNA interference significantly promoted the expression of the major hepatic biomarkers. In addition to the essential role of miR-148a in hepatocyte maturation, we identified its beneficial effect through the repression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell malignancy.

Interestingly, 17-DMAG had a profound effect on TNFα promoter-dri

Interestingly, 17-DMAG had a profound effect on TNFα promoter-driven reporter activity, pointing to the likely involvement of other repressive transcription factors in 17-DMAG-mediated proinflammatory cytokine reduction in the liver. Although inhibition of Hsp90 releases HSF1 from its inactive state to induce target

gene expression,29, 30 HSF1 also negatively regulates the induction of proinflammatory cytokine genes.49-51 Consistent with previous findings,31 no change in hsp90 protein levels was observed after 17-DMAG treatment in the liver. On the other hand, hsp90 inhibition resulted in a significant up-regulation of HSF1 DNA binding and induction of hsp70 mRNA and protein in the liver, confirming the inhibition of hsp90 chaperone function. The repressive function of HSF1 on the transcription of proinflammatory cytokine gene TNFα in macrophages during exposure to febrile temperatures has been shown.51-53 The TNFα find more promoter GW-572016 nmr is reported to have a binding site for HSF1.33 We postulated that activated HSF1 in the liver may serve as a repressor of TNFα gene induction during treatment with 17-DMAG. Using the ChIP assay, we showed the binding of HSF1 to the TNFα promoter in the presence of 17-DMAG treatment in macrophages. This observation correlates with elevated DNA-binding activity of HSF1

in response to hsp90 inhibition by 17-DMAG in the liver. Furthermore, whereas HSF1 bound to the hsp70 promoter, 17-DMAG treatment did not induce the binding of HSF1 to the IL-6 promoter, indicating an HSF1 indirect or independent down-regulation

of IL-6 during 17-DMAG treatment. Previous studies showed that HSF1 indirectly negatively regulates the IL-6 promoter through the induction of ATF3.37 Our studies exhibited an up-regulation of LPS-induced ATF3 mRNA and protein in the liver during 17-DMAG treatment, suggesting that HSF1 negatively regulates IL-6, likely through ATF3 induction. Future studies will determine the role of ATF3 in 17-DMAG-treated macrophages and liver inflammatory responses. Finally, using HSF1 siRNA, we also confirmed the direct repressive role for HSF1 in TNFα inhibition and an indirect regulation of IL-6 in 17-DMAG-treated macrophages. Thus, HSF1 appears to play a significant role in the down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine responses in the liver on treatment with 17-DMAG, a specific hsp90 selleck kinase inhibitor inhibitor. The clinical significance of our study is related to the emerging function of hsp90 as a potential therapeutic target in different diseases.18, 28, 43, 44, 54 Compelling approaches using hsp90 inhibitors in hepatocellular carcinoma41 and hepatitis C virus replication54, 55 have been reported. Our results here, for the first time, suggest a novel application for hsp90 inhibitor 17-DMAG in alleviating LPS-mediated liver injury, providing a solid basis for clinical investigations using hsp90 inhibitors in acute and chronic liver diseases.