Both genera are ubiquitous in the environment with high prevalence
in tropical and sub-tropical regions, particularly in equatorial Africa, Central America and India. Entomophthoromycosis has a predilection for areas with adipose tissue, possibly because these organisms thrive on fatty substances.The disease presents in two clinically distinct forms; basidiobolomycosis (subcutaneous zygomycosis) and conidiobolomycosis (rhinofacial zygomycosis). Neither of these two forms occurs preferentially in patients with underlying disease or defective immunity. Basidiobolus was first described by Eidam in 1886. It is a filamentous fungus isolated from amphibians, reptiles, horses, dogs and bats, as well as wood lice, plant debris and soil. Basidiobolus is classified into B. ranarum, B. meristosporus and B. haptosporus. However, the taxonomic studies based on antigen analysis and restriction PARP inhibitor enzyme analysis revealed that all human-pathogenic isolates belong to B. ranarum.[10, 11] The first case click here of subcutaneous mycosis caused by B. ranarum in humans was reported from Indonesia
in 1956. After that, many cases of subcutaneous basidiobolomycosis have been reported from different parts of Africa (especially Uganda and Nigeria), India and South-East Asia.[13, 14] The infection is thought to occur following traumatic implantation of the fungus into the subcutaneous tissues of the thighs, buttocks or trunk. This form of zygomycosis occurs predominantly in children (80% below the age of 20 years) with a male/female ratio of 3 : 1.[13, 15] The disease manifests as disc-shaped, rubbery, mobile masses that may be quite large and are usually located in the shoulder, hips or thighs.[13, 16] The lesions contain inflammatory Fossariinae cellular material with many eosinophils, accounting for the skin erythema and warmth. The condition is slowly progressive but seldom life threatening. Painless firm erythematous plaques of the subcutaneous tissue
are also characteristic of the disease. Significant non-pitting oedema of the involved area may occur. Additionally, skin ulceration and lymph node enlargement may be observed.[19, 20] The main differential diagnoses of these lesions are tuberculosis, localised elephantiasis, onchocerciasis, scleroderma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and Wegener granulomatosis. Systemic dissemination is extremely uncommon; however, widespread fatal dissemination had been reported in a previously healthy woman, with involvement of brain, lung, spleen, stomach, kidney and pancreas. Basidiobolomycosis rarely involves extracutaneous systems. Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis (GIB), retroperitoneal [25, 26] and pulmonary  basidiobolomycosis have been reported in the medical literature. The first case of GIB was reported in 1964 in a 6-year-old Nigerian boy.