, 2004 and Nagy and Lockaby, 2012) These systems may be extensiv

, 2004 and Nagy and Lockaby, 2012). These systems may be extensive Decitabine research buy or rare in the landscape, represent unique habitats locally and globally, with significant social and ecological values (Moberg and Ronnback, 2003, Alongi, 2008 and Grossmann, 2012). They are generally heavily impacted by humans (Wohl, 2005 and Miettinen et al., 2012) and especially in coastal areas, urbanized (Burbridge, 2012). Despite the highly altered nature of these areas, the interest in restoring wetland and coastal ecosystems

is great as a way to mitigate damage from changing land use in upland areas of watersheds that cause downstream flooding (Bruijnzeel, 2004) and further challenges from sea-level rise, salt-water intrusion, and increased coastal storm and wave action under future PD-1 phosphorylation climate (Kaplan et al., 2010, Maschinski et al., 2011 and Gilman et al., 2008). Restoring wet forests often requires a combination of hydrologic modification

and revegetation, with due consideration for natural recolonization (Allen et al., 2001 and Lewis, 2005). Restoring hydrologic functioning must begin with an objective examination of what is possible, in particular the extent to which hydroperiod can be truly restored. Fully restoring hydrological functioning goes beyond re-wetting but full restoration may be impractical because of cost, incompatibility with current land uses, or conflict with private property rights, especially in large riverine systems with extensive levees and flood control structures (Stanford et al., 1996, Lockaby and Stanturf, 2002 and Hughes

et al., 2012). Nevertheless, increased interest in “soft-engineering” approaches to water Cepharanthine management (Day et al., 2003 and Borsje et al., 2011), combined with predictions of coastal vulnerability to sea-level rise may change perceptions of feasibility (Danielsen et al., 2005 and Zhang et al., 2012). Restoring hydrologic functioning of rivers goes beyond forest restoration and may involve removing dams and breaching levees before restoring vegetation (Stanford et al., 1996, Schneider, 2010 and Hughes et al., 2012). Inundation regime remains critical for matching species to site; for example, mangrove forests globally are inundated ⩽30% of the time by tidal waters, which may require modifying the slope of the restoration site to the appropriate height above mean seal level (Lewis, 2005). If hydroperiod has not been altered, or can be easily restored, site factors are critical to determining restoration success. Many planting failures can be traced to outplanting species unadapted to the existing inundation regime (Stanturf et al., 1998, Stanturf et al., 2001 and Lewis, 2005).

The color interference assay indicated possible color interferenc

The color interference assay indicated possible color interference in more than 50% of the root canal samples analyzed by the endpoint QCL, even after considering serial dilution method to 10−4, a strategy usually attempted to minimize possible sample color interference. In fact, because the endotoxin samples were suspended in a noncolored medium (LAL water), it can be speculated that

the use of 25% acetic acid as a stop reagent might interfere with the assay because of its capacity to turn yellow by increasing the intensity of the yellow color and consequently overestimating the levels of endotoxin. Regarding the endotoxin detection, the sample selleckchem learn more by itself presents critical points that must be considered for an optimal LAL

reaction. First of them is the microbiota profile (primary vs secondary infection), particularly in secondary endodontic infection in which gram-positive bacteria (32) are predominantly involved. An unusual reactivity with peptidoglycan from the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria (≈0.00025%) (33) might account for a positive LAL assay at concentrations 1.000 to 400.000 times higher than the required one because of the alternative glucan pathway (19), requiring specifically blockage with laminarin (34). The pH variation in the root canals after the use of chemical substances during the treatment also plays an important role in the LAL reaction. In order to get an ideal pH (6.0-8.0) 30 and 31 for LAL enzyme activation, an adjustment of the pH of the root

canal samples might be required, particularly after the use of chemical substances (eg, sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid). Moreover, a prior cleaning of the root canal samples by centrifugation or filtration might be necessary, particularly in the analysis Monoiodotyrosine of the endotoxin samples after the use of an intracanal medicament (eg, calcium hydroxide), because the turbidity of the samples might interfere in the endotoxin measurement. In view of the results, the present study indicated that it is not possible to reconcile the levels of endotoxin determined by the endpoint QCL with the kinetic LAL methodology. Foremost, future endotoxin comparison studies must take into consideration the method used for the quantification of bacterial LPS before establishing any comparisons of the levels of endotoxin, always comparing endpoint with endpoint-QCL LAL studies, as well as kinetic to kinetic LAL investigations.

Furthermore, it is noteworthy that not only central airways, but

Furthermore, it is noteworthy that not only central airways, but also distal airways and lung parenchyma, are involved in the functional changes of asthma (Xisto et al., 2005). In the experimental model of allergic asthma used herein, we observed histological

changes such as increased alveolar collapse and contraction index, which were due to alterations in airway wall thickness and collagen fiber deposition. These morphological changes led to increased lung static elastance and viscoelastic and resistive pressures respectively. Both cell therapies decreased resistive pressure, probably due to an increase in the internal diameter of the central airways and a reduction in collagen fiber content in the distal airways. BMMC therapy led PCI-32765 price to a more pronounced reduction in viscoelastic pressure and static elastance than MSC administration, a finding that may be associated with explain less alveolar collapse and reduction in collagen deposition in the alveolar septa in the OVA-BMMC group. These results corroborate the findings of a previous

study that evaluated the role Akt cancer of BMMC therapy using the same experimental protocol (Abreu et al., 2011). Therefore, the fact that the reduction in these histological changes was more pronounced with BMMC therapy may be associated with greater improvement in lung mechanics. The clinical implication of these findings is associated with the advantages of using BMMCs over MSCs, namely the fact that BMMCs may be used in autologous transplantation (thus avoiding potential cell rejection) and on the same day of harvesting.

This study has some limitations. First, saline was administrated rather than fibroblasts, since fibroblasts have been shown to yield no beneficial effects (Xu et al., 2007). Furthermore, it is speculated that MSCs constitute a unique cell type, distinct from fibroblasts (Martinez et al., 2007). Second, other cytokines and growth factors Liothyronine Sodium in addition to those analyzed in this study may be involved in the airway remodeling process. Third, even though the number of animals in each group was relatively small (n = 6), three sets of experiments were conducted to assess reproducibility and reliability. Finally, BMMCs are a heterogeneous mix that includes hematopoietic cells, a variety of inflammatory cell types, and a small number of cells with phenotypic characteristics of MSCs. Preclinical models have demonstrated that the hematopoietic fraction could differentiate into lineages that could regenerate damaged tissue ( Lakshmipathy and Verfaillie, 2005), whereas MSCs have immunomodulatory properties and release trophic factors, accelerating the repair process and regenerating viable tissue, thereby improving lung function ( Ou-Yang et al., 2011). The present study was unable to evaluate which combination of cells observed in the BMMC pool yielded better effects.

Proteins were focused at 8,000 V within 3 hours Immobilized pH g

Proteins were focused at 8,000 V within 3 hours. Immobilized pH gradient strips were rehydrated using 250 μL of each paired preparation. Once isoelectric focusing was completed, the strips were equilibrated in equilibration buffer for 10 minutes. The second dimension was performed using 10% SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) at 20 mA

per gel. The gels were stained using a colloidal blue staining kit (Life Technologies) for 24 hours, and destained with deionized water. Melanie 7.0 software (Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Geneva, Switzerland) was used for protein pattern evaluation analysis of the 2-DE gels, as reported previously [16]. Proteins with abnormal levels Selleckchem MLN8237 were subjected to MALDI-MS analysis for identification. 2-DE gels containing the proteins of interest were excised, destained, and dried in a SpeedVac evaporator (Thermoscientific, Waltham, MA, USA). Dried gel pieces were rehydrated with 30 μL 25mM sodium bicarbonate containing 50 ng trypsin (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) at 37°C overnight. α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (10 mg; AB Sciex, Foster City, CA, USA) was dissolved in 1 mL 50% acetonitrile in 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid, and 1 μL of Selleck MK-2206 the matrix solution was mixed with an equivalent volume of sample. Analysis was

performed using a 4700 Proteomics Analyzer TOF/TOF system (AB Sciex). The TOF/TOF system was set to positive ion reflect mode. Mass spectra were first calibrated in the closed external mode using the 4700 proteomics analyzer calibration mixture (AB Sciex) and analyzed with GPS Explorer software, version 3.5 (AB Sciex). The acquired MS/MS spectra were searched against SwissProt and NCBI databases using an in-house version of MASCOT. Cancer cells (5 × 106 cells/mL) were washed three times in cold PBS containing

1mM sodium orthovanadate and lysed in lysis buffer (20mM Tris–HCl, pH 7.4, 2mM EDTA, 2mM ethyleneglycotetraacetic acid, 50mM β-glycerophosphate, 1mM sodium orthovanadate, 1mM dithiothreitol, 1% Triton X-100, 10% glycerol, 10 μg/mL aprotinin, 10 μg/mL pepstatin, 1mM benzimide, and 2mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride) for 30 minutes with rotation at 4°C. The lysates were clarified either by centrifugation at 16,000 × g for 10 minutes at 4°C and stored at −20°C until needed. Whole cell lysates were then analyzed using immunoblotting analysis [17]. Proteins were separated on 10% SDS-polyacrylamide gels and transferred by electroblotting to a polyvinylidenedifluoride membrane. Membranes were blocked for 1 hour in Tris-buffered saline containing 3% fetal bovine serum, 20mM NaF, 2mM EDTA, and 0.2% Tween 20 at room temperature. The membranes were incubated for 1 hour with specific primary antibodies at 4°C, washed three times with the same buffer, and incubated for an additional 1 hour with horseradish-peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibodies.

This seasonal flow regulation largely favors water consumption in

This seasonal flow regulation largely favors water consumption in non-flood seasons, primarily for farming irrigation. In non-flood season, the difference between average daily water discharge at Huayuankou and Lijin

results mainly from water consumption loss. This value increased in a step-wise manner from 26 m3/s in 1950–1968 to 242 m3/s in 1969–1986 Adriamycin in vitro and 421 m3/s in 1987–1999, respectively, followed by a slight decrease of 384 m3/s in 2000–2011 (Table 2). This pattern can be explained by increasing water use favored by strengthening runoff regulations. The construction of large dams on the Huanghe has largely controlled the frequent floods on the lower reaches that are ded by monsoon rains. Long-term (1950–2011) PD0332991 datasheet observations of daily water discharge at Lijin reveal that peak flow > 6000 m3/s decreased dramatically from a total 155 days during 1950–1968 to 17 days during 1969–1986, and vanish completely since 1987 (Table 3). Even smaller flood peaks (4000–6000 m3/s) could not be observed after the construction of Xiaolangdi reservoir in 1999. Since 2000, low flow (<2000 m3/s) dominates the discharge pattern of the lower reaches most of the year, and flow >2000 m3/s is mainly concentrated within the annual WSM (often less than 20 days) when the released floodwater

is confined to <4000 m3/s. Huayuankou station recorded a similar trend, as shown in Table Axenfeld syndrome 3. Here, we select representative years (1954, 1988, 2003) to show the stepwise

drops in the amplitude of flood peaks recorded at Lijin and Huayuankou over time (Fig. 2). Both the Lijin and Huayuankou records show a similar pattern, with the amplitudes of flood peaks dramatically decreasing. At Huayuankou station, pre-dam discharge levels (1950–1960) show several flood peaks during the flood season, with extreme peaks approaching ∼17,000 m3/s (e.g. 1954, Fig. 2A). In 1988 smaller flood peaks (<7000 m3/s) could be observed (Fig. 2B). In 2003 (after Xiaolangdi Reservoir was constructed), flood peaks >4000 m3/s become non-existent, e.g. in 2003 (Fig. 2C). Since 1950, no catastrophic flooding has occurred in the lower reaches of the Huanghe, owing to the effect of the dams. Sediment sequestration is a common problem in many large reservoirs. This problem is particularly severe for the Huanghe owing to the high suspended sediment concentration. Spatially, the Longyangxia and Liujiaxia reservoirs have a minor effect in trapping sediment, since only a small fraction of the Huanghe sediment is sourced from its upper reaches. The Liujiaxia and Longyangxia annually trap only 0.53 × 108 m3 (average 1968–1997 level) and 0.16 × 108 m3 (average 1986–1997 level) of sediment, respectively (Peng and Chen, 2009). The Sanmenxia and Xiaolangdi reservoirs in the lower middle reaches have trapped large amounts of sediment since their operation. The Sanmenxia Reservoir, in particular, had lost 45.

Radiocarbon ages were calibrated using the IntCal09 calibration c

Radiocarbon ages were calibrated using the IntCal09 calibration curve (Reimer

et al., 2009) and probabilities were summed using OxCal version 4.1 (Bronk Ramsey, 2009). To remove the effects of the variation in the gradient of the calibration curve and in alluvial unit preservation, the probability distribution for anthropogenic alluvium dates was divided by the probability distribution for all 844 dates within the radiocarbon database to give a relative probability distribution, following Hoffman et al. (2008) and Macklin et al. (2010). The resulting probability curves were then normalized by dividing each date by the highest probability in the data set. Relative probability trans-isomer distributions have been plotted with the frequencies of dates in 100-year intervals, calculated using the mid-point of the 2σ calibrated age range. Fig. 1 shows the location of sites in the UK where Holocene fluvial units have been 14C dated. AA has been identified at 93 out of 256 (36%) of these sites. This is not to say that alluviation at 163 locations

has not also been affected by anthropogenic activity, but using our strict criteria this is not registered using the information reported in publications. 130 out of 844 dated UK fluvial units (15%) can be classified as AA. Anthropogenic alluvium is recorded only at one site in the Scottish Highlands and is probably under-represented in eastern England and the English Channel catchments, as well as in tidally influenced river reaches because of the lack of 14C-dated Holocene fluvial units. Only two 14C-dated selleck AA units are classified as colluvial and debris flow deposits. The oldest AA unit is dated to c. 4400 cal. BP (Early Bronze Age) and there is an apparent 1500 year lag between the adoption of agriculture in the UK, as recorded by direct 14C dating of cereal grains (Stevens and Fuller, 2012), and its impact on floodplain sedimentation (Fig. 2). There

is, however, no correspondence between accelerated lake sedimentation – attributed to anthropogenic activity (Edwards and Whittington, 2001) – and AA, except at c.1000 cal. BP. Furthermore, selleck products episodes (c. 6000, 5000 and 3000 cal. BP) where lake deposition rates increase between the beginning of the Neolithic and the end of the Bronze Age, do not correspond with periods of notable cereal cultivation as identified by Stevens and Fuller (2012). Indeed, they coincide with troughs in the independently summed probability distribution of cultivated plant food and suggest that the primary cause of accelerated sedimentation was not related to arable farming. Alternatively, climate change and/or over-grazing in these mostly small catchments in northern and western Britain and Ireland could have been contributing factors.

05 was considered to be statistically significant The heterogene

05 was considered to be statistically significant. The heterogeneity assumption was checked using an I2 statistic. An I2 value of > check details 50% signified “substantial heterogeneity”, and a random effects model was used. An I2 value of ≤ 50% showed the absence of heterogeneity and defaulted to the fixed effects model approach. Funnel plots and Egger’s linear regression test were used to identify potential publication bias, and p < 0.05 was considered indicative of statistically significant

publication bias. The literature search identified 546 articles on the association between genetic polymorphisms and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Of these, 536 were subsequently excluded after screening of abstracts or full texts. Ultimately, 10 articles were assessed as useful for the systematic review with meta-analysis,11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 and nine studies were included in the meta-analysis.11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19 The flow diagram of study identification is shown in Fig. 1. These studies were conducted on six countries (China, Malaysia, Thailand, the United States, Brazil, and Turkey). They included 1,164 cases of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and 1,416 controls. The characteristics of the included studies Hydroxychloroquine concentration are summarized in Table 1. In one study included in the systematic review, there were no statistically significant differences in the risk

of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia for the 388 G>A and 521 T>C variants of SLCO1B1.11 Nine studies were included in the meta-analysis, which assessed the association

between the SLCO1B1 388 G>A mutation and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (Table 2).12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 Results of the meta-analysis indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in the risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia between SLCO1B1 388 G>A allele carriers (A/A+G/A) and G/G allele carriers (OR, 1.07; 95% CI: 0.90–1.28) (Fig. 2). A significant inter-study heterogeneity was observed (p = 0.00). Egger’s test provided no evidence for funnel plot asymmetry in the comparison of the SLCO1B1 388 G>A mutation and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (t = 2.12, p = 0.07). Additionally, in the subgroup analyses based on ethnicity, no significant associations were found in white (OR, 1.01; 95% CI: 0.69–1.49), Asian, Thai, Latin American, or SB-3CT Malaysian populations (Table 3). However, significantly elevated risks were found in the SLCO1B1 388 G>A variant genotypes in Chinese neonates (OR, 1.39; 95% CI: 1.07–1.82). A significant inter-study heterogeneity was also observed in subgroup analysis of Asian populations (p = 0.02). Meta-analysis comparing the A allele to the G allele in the SLCO1B1 388 G>A mutation also showed an increased risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (OR, 1.32; 95% CI: 1.06–1.64) in Chinese neonates, but not in white, Thai, Latin American, or Malaysian populations (Fig. 3 and Table 3).

These results were independent of gender, maternal education, mat

These results were independent of gender, maternal education, maternal BMI, breastfeeding history, and child waist circumference, and persisted even when the cut-off for defining a child as growth retarded was “relaxed” to -1.62 HAZ.17 Thus, a growing body of literature now points to undernutrition early in life as a condition

that may predispose an individual to unhealthy or even atherogenic blood lipid profiles. Considering that the period between conception and 2 years of age is critical for development, AZD5363 supplier a link between poor fetal and childhood growth and cardiovascular disease is certainly plausible. There are a number of biochemical or epigenetic that may explain the association between growth retardation and adaptations in lipid metabolism. Specifically, data from animal studies suggest that undernutrition during the gestational period causes changes in lipid metabolism and structural changes in the liver.18, 19 and 20 Cong et al. found that rat pups of protein-restricted mothers had lower liver weights compared to those born to mothers with adequate nutrition.18 Perhaps more important, pups born to protein-deficient mothers had genes for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) that were hypomethylated, a condition that Selleckchem AZD0530 allows for the

activation of the transcription of the HMGCR gene, resulting in an overexpression of the protein and enhanced basal cholesterol synthesis. An exceptional study by Sohi et al. observed that rat pups born to protein-deprived mothers were hypercholesterolemic at birth and throughout early development.19 Epigenetic changes in the same litter of pups included increased histone methylation in the cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase promoter, resulting in decreased gene expression, allowing for decreased cholesterol decay and hypercholesterolemia. Nonetheless, while some data clearly support

the mechanism that nutritional deprivation in utero imparts epigenetic changes that cause atherogenic lipid profiles, the sum of the available research is still equivocal. The research cited provide reasonable evidence Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase that undernutrition early in life is associated with elements of an “unhealthy” lipid profile, but it is essential that future studies are developed to further explore potential mechanisms behind such associations, both at the biochemical and the physiological level, with strict attention to study design and data analysis. There are a number of statistical methods that are easily employed to refine our understanding of data collected through complex designs. For example, it is absolutely imperative that potential confounding factors are identified and addressed in the design phase (through randomization) or in the analysis phase (using linear regression or other advanced analyses).

All other procedures were similar to those used in the patients t

All other procedures were similar to those used in the patients treated

with prehospital cooling including application of the cooling pads. The same protocol RG7420 for sedation, analgesia and neuromuscular blockade was used and cooling was continued for 24 h. Post-resuscitative care was provided according to established guidelines.31 Data were recorded as recommended for uniform reporting of data from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.32 Also, number of both rearrests during the first 2 h after ROSC and episodes of pulmonary edema (as defined by reviewing admission chest radiograph reports) was recorded. Neurological outcome was classified by using the cerebral performance category (CPC). A performance score of 1 (good function) or 2 (moderate disability) on a 5-category scale was considered a favorable outcome; the other categories were considered an unfavorable outcome including 3 (severe disability), 4 (a vegetative state), and 5 (death). Patients with good recovery or moderate disability had sufficient cerebral function to live independently and work at least part-time in a sheltered environment. Patients dying during the ICU phase that were being sedated were categorized

as having unfavorable neurologic outcome. A specially trained study nurse assessed the 12-month follow up over the telephone. Time to ROSC, temperature on admission, time to target temperature (33.9 °C) and outcome were compared between groups. Continuous variables are reported as mean and standard deviation (SD) or median and interquartile range (IQRs; between the 25th and 75th quartiles), Bosutinib chemical structure if not normally distributed. Primary and secondary outcomes were binary, and the chi-square test was used to compare the outcomes between experimental groups. For normally distributed continuous variables, the Student’s t-test was performed. To C59 test non-normally distributed variables, the Kruskal–Wallis Test was used. For data management and analyses, MS Excel 2011 for Mac and Stata 13.1 for Mac (Stata Corp, College Station, TX) were used. A two-sided p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Between September 2005 and February 2010, overall 954 in-hospital

and out-of hospital cardiac arrest patients were treated at our department. From these, 787 (82.5%) achieved ROSC. From patients with ROSC, 585 (74.3%) were admitted after out of hospital-cardiac arrest and out of these, 110 patients were included in the study (Fig. 2). Out of 110, 56 (50.9%) were cooled in the prehospital setting and 54 (49.1%) were cooled after admission (IH) by using the external cooling pad (Table 1). The two patient groups did not differ in demographic characteristics except in a significantly longer time to first CPR attempts in the prehospital group (Table 1). In total, 20 patients cooled in the prehospital phase were not included: 5 patients did not achieve sustained ROSC and 15 patients were excluded due to cooling with other invasive and non-invasive techniques after admission to hospital.

Careful evaluation of potential spinal cord branches should be ca

Careful evaluation of potential spinal cord branches should be carried out

prior to embolization to avoid severe complications (e.g. spinal cord ischemia, which is extremely unlikely to happen with this type of embolization). Furthermore coil embolization should be performed by placing coils proximal and Selleckchem AZD2281 distal from the pseudoaneurysm in order to avoid recurrence. After the procedure, patients may experience chest pain (prevalence 24–91%) or dysphagia (prevalence 0.7–18%); both are likely related to an ischemic event caused by embolization and are usually transient. Subintimal dissection of the bronchial artery can occur (prevalence 1–6.3%), but is usually asymptomatic. High success rates have been reported for bronchial artery embolization, but recurrence after successful embolization can occur–probably due to collateral

vessels, incomplete embolization, and arterial re-canalization–making re-intervention necessary [1], [4] and [6]. A hemomediastinum is a rare pathological event with several possible underlying causes including a ruptured bronchial artery aneurysm. Bronchial artery Metformin mouse aneurysms present with various symptoms ranging from massive hemoptysis to subtle chest pain. First choice treatment consists of transcatheter embolization. We would like Lenvatinib cost to thank prof. E. Wouters for his assistance in the preparation and submission of this manuscript. “
“Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common nosocomial pathogen that often causes pneumonia in hospitalized patients [1] and [2], most of whom have underlying medical conditions or risk factors for Pseudomonas infection. Although rare, case reports and reviews have described healthy individuals who have developed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by P. aeruginosa [3], [4], [5], [6], [7] and [8] that is often rapidly progressive and fatal. Here, we compared hospital-acquired (HAP) and healthcare-associated (HCAP) pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa, with rapidly

progressive P. aeruginosa CAP in a previously healthy 29-year-old man. A previously healthy 29-year-old man presented at the emergency room in June 2012 with acute pain around the right shoulder and high fever accompanied by extreme fatigue that had persisted for nine days. He had a medical history of mild sinusitis, but had never smoked. A physical examination indicated the following: temperature, 39.5 °C; blood pressure, 111/50 mmHg and a respiratory rate of 28 breaths/min. A physical examination revealed crackles (rhonchi) at the upper right lung and chest radiography indicated bilateral opacities (Fig. 1(A) and (B)). His initial WBC count was 26,400/L, and C-reactive protein (CRP) was 20.0 mg/dL. P.